OGC Glossary

Glossary of Terms - P

Portable Document Format. An Adobe file format readable with free software (Acrobat Reader)
Use of aerial photographs to produce planimetric and topographic maps of the earth`s surface and of features of the built environment. Effective photogrammetry makes use of ground control by which aerial photographs are carefully compared and registered to the locations and characteristics of features identified in ground-level surveys.
pilot project
In the context of the OGC Interoperability Program, a project to introduce new technology products into an operational environment to discover the effectiveness of these products and the new approaches they enable, and to provide feedback into the Specification Program.
Planning Committee
The OGC Planning Committee identifies market opportunities for interoperability and uses this information to document and maintain a "Technology Roadmap" that sets forth the plan, schedule and rationale for OGC activities.
planning study
In OGC: Strategic study that assesses opportunities to expand and sustain an organization's interoperability capacity.
Another term for computer hardware, including microcomputers, workstations, and mainframe computers, or for underlying software, like an operating system, that provides services to layered software.
platform independent
Depends on context, but in general, when discussing software, platform independence means the software can be run on any computer or operating system or distributed computing platform.
Portable Network Graphic. A format for Web graphics
point of interest
A location (with a fixed position) where one can find a place, product or service, typically identified by name rather than by address and characterized by type, which may be used as a reference point or a target in a location based service request, e.g., as the destination of a route.
point to grid interpolation
Source: GETIS glossary
The conversion from a geospatial data set that represents a surface with points and their attributes (e.g. terrain heights) to a grid (raster) data structure that represents the same surface. The estimation of attribute values of the surface at an unsampled point in the grid is based on the known attribute values of surrounding points in the point dataset.
Source: AGI glossary. http://www.geo.ed.ac.uk/agidict/welcome.html
A feature used to represent areas. A polygon is defined by the lines that make up its boundary and a point inside its boundary for identification. Polygons have attributes that describe the geographic feature they represent.
polygon overlay
Source: AGI glossary. http://www.geo.ed.ac.uk/agidict/welcome.html
"The process of superimposing two or more polygons, through registration to a common co-ordinate system. Such an overlay procedure determines the spatial coincidence of two sets of polygon features and creates a new set of polygons based upon overlay operating."
A Web site that provides a view into a universe of content and activity through a variety of links to other sites, communication and collaboration tools, and special features geared toward the community served by the portal.
The presentation of information to humans, e.g., a map. In the context of the Web, portrayal refers to how data is presented for the user. Map portrayal, for example, is concerned with shape and color of symbols representing features, rules for displaying text labels, rules for showing/not showing symbols based on zoom extent, etc.
Portrayal Service
Defines a standard interface for producing visual pictures from coverage data. CPS extends the WMS interface and uses the Styled Layer Descriptor (SLD) language to support rendering of WCS coverages. provide visualization of geospatial information. Portrayal Services are components that, given one or more inputs, produce rendered outputs (e.g., cartographically portrayed maps, perspective views of terrain, annotated images, views of dynamically changing features in space and time, etc.). Examples include: Map Portrayal Services (MPS), Coverage Portrayal Services (CPS) and Mobile Presentation Services.
Refers to the level of measurement and exactness of description in a GIS database. Precise locational data may measure position to a fraction of a unit. Precise attribute information may specify the characteristics of features in great detail. It is important to realize, however, that precise data - no matter how carefully measured - may be inaccurate. Surveyors may make mistakes or data may be entered into the database incorrectly. Therefore, a distinction is made between precision and accuracy.
presentation (map portrayal) service
A network-accessible service that portrays a map made up of a base map derived from any geospatial data and a set of ADT's as overlays.
process domain model
Data model that characterizes well-known, domain-specific business processes. These models capture business rules, policies, tasks, and procedures in the form of processing chains. Microsoft, IBM and others are collaborating on a standard methodology for online workflow and service chaining. When this standard stabilizes and emerges, organizations will start testing this technology and adapt it in a wide range of workflows. When that happens, many Process Domain Models will result.
processing services
OWS Services that operate on geospatial data and provide 'value-add' services for applications. They can transform, combine, or create data. Processing Services can be tightly or loosely coupled with other services, such as Data and Portrayal Services. Processing Services can be sequenced into a 'chain' of services to perform specialized processing in support of information production workflows and decision support. Examples include: Coordinate Transformation Services (CTS), Geocoder Services, Route Determination Services etc.
A collection of standards, with parameters, options, classes, or subsets, necessary for building a complete computer system, application, or function. An implementation case of a more general standard or set of standards.
A facet or attribute or an object referenced by a name.
A set of semantic and syntactic rules that determine the behavior of entities that interact.
In the context of the OGC Interoperability Program, prototyping refers to developing a new candidate standard interface, protocol, schema etc. for the purpose of learning about it and guiding future OpenGIS Specification development.
In the context of OGC Web Services, just as non-spatial Web pages "publish" their contents - make them discoverable - through HTML, metadata, geodata and geoprocessing services servers publish their contents and capabilities through XML metadata contained in feature type registries, feature instance catalogs, and service registries.
publish, find, bind
In the context of Web Services, publish means to advertise data and services to a broker (such as registry, catalog or clearinghouse). A service provider contacts the service broker to publish (or unpublish) a service. A service provider typically publishes to the broker metadata describing its capabilities and network address. Find is used by service requestors to locate specific service types or instances. Service requestors describe the kinds of services they're looking for to the broker and the broker responds by delivering results that match the request. Service requestors typically use metadata published to the broker to find service providers of interest. Bind results after a service requestor and a service provider successfully negotiate so the requestor can access and invoke services of the provider. A service requestor typically uses service metadata provided by the broker to bind to a service provider. The service requestor can either use a proxy generator to generate the code that can bind to the service, or can use the service description to manually implement the binding before accessing that service.

Glossary of Terms - O

Data and processing functions packaged into a small, discrete, interoperable module. Also, in a specific OGC context, an XML document element of a type derived from AbstractGMLType
Object Oriented (OO)
Software in which data and processing functions are packaged into small, discrete, interoperable modules, offering advantages such as portability and easy maintainability.
object technology
Software scheme in which data and processing functions are packaged into small, discrete, interoperable modules, offering advantages such as portability and easy maintainability.
observation domain model
The definition of a specific observation type in accordance with the general observation model.
Observation Model
The general model for representing observations of earth phenomena; general observation model for describing well-known observations.
Source: PreANVIL Glossary http://www.anvil.eu.com/find/Glossary-english.htm
Open GIS Consortium, Inc. http://www.opengis.org
OGC Interoperability Program
The OGC Interoperability Program provides an industry consensus process to develop, test, demonstrate, and promote the use of standard interfaces and protocols that enable interoperable geoprocessing. The Interoperability Program organizes and manages Interoperability Initiatives, including Testbeds, Pilot Projects, Planning Studies, Insertion Projects, and Feasibility Studies. Technical documents, training materials, test suites, reference implementations and other resources developed in these initiatives become available for use by members and the public on the OGCNetwork.
OGC Network
An OGC web site (http://www.ogcnetwork.org/ ) that provides a Directory of OGC services, fora, mail lists, specifications, discussion papers, Collaborative Test Environment services, and other OGC-related resources.
OGC Specification Program
In the OGC Specification Program, the OGC Technical Committee reviews specifications for interfaces and encodings developed either in the Interoperability Program by groups of members, or through an internal proposals process. The Technical Committee and Planning Committee then approve these as OpenGIS® Specifications for release to the public.
OGC Technical Baseline
See Technical Baseline.
OGC Technical Committee
The OGC Technical Committee is the primary operational unit of the OpenGIS specification development and adoption process. It is comprised of the technical representatives of all OGC member organizations and is charged with creating OpenGIS Specifications and maintaining the OGC Abstract Specification. The Technical Committee does the bulk of its work through its Working Groups (WGs).
Source: PreANVIL Glossary http://www.anvil.eu.com/find/Glossary-english.htm
Open GIS Consortium (Europe) Limited: a business supporting OGC in Europe. http://www.opengis.co.uk
Object Linking and Embedding/Common Object Model. A DCP developed by Microsoft.
A state (referring to equipment such as computers, plotters, printers, and digitizers) of being turned on and actively communicating with a computer or computer network.
open interface
An interface that implements a standard specification developed in an open consensus process. (See interface.)
Open Location Services
Open Location Services (OpenLS) is a multi-phase project which is focused on defining and building the "core" Location Based Services (LBS) standards and information framework for LBS application services in close coordination with other related industry standards groups.
open platform
In the past, the term platform denoted any specific hardware and operating system combination, such as the Windows/Intel platform. It now used more generally describes an application programming interface (API) or set of APIs that provide access to computing power, database, GIS or other services hidden "underneath" those APIs. The acronym "API" is generally giving way to "interface" in programmer-speak. No single vendor provides an open platform unless all the exposed interfaces are open interfaces as defined above. An open platform needs to be like the IT industry`s Web Services platform, which is still, as of August, 2003, largely unencumbered by proprietary restrictions and is the product of a non-exclusive consensus process.
open source
It is important not to confuse "open source" with "open standards." They are entirely different. The special licenses that govern use and sale of such software exist not to ensure profits to the software`s owner, but to ensure that the software`s source code remains in the public domain (free to all), though companies are allowed to sell products that include some or all of the source code. Open source software is usually developed not by single company but by a distributed team of developers, typically an informal ad hoc group of volunteers.
open specification
A specification that promotes interoperability through its public availability to developers, who use it to develop software or hardware compatible with the common resource described in the specification. Open specifications are generally consistent with related standards and are updated to conform with new standards and new technologies. They may be developed and maintained, as in the case of OpenGIS Specifications, by a public open consensus process.
open standards
An "open standard" is one that: 1. Is created in an open, international, participatory industry process 2. Is freely distributed and openly accessible 3. Does not discriminate against persons or groups 5. Ensures that the specification and the license must be technology neutral: Its use must not be predicated on any proprietary technology or style of interface.
open system
Open systems are systems that interoperate through open interfaces, protocols etc. developed and maintained in an inclusive, open consensus process. Open systems promote application portability, scalability, interoperability, diversity, manageability, extensibility, compatibility with legacy components, and user portability.
open system environment
A computer environment specified by a set of standards and profiles for interfaces, services, and formats for an open system.
OpenGIS Abstract Specification
A document that captures the OGC member consensus on a computing technology independent specification for interfaces, protocols or schemas for interoperable geoprocessing. The Abstract Specification is that part of the OpenGIS Specification created by the OGC Technical Committee to provide a high level description of the functionality to be provided in OpenGIS Implementation Specifications.
OpenGIS Implementation Specification
A document containing a computing platform dependent specification for application program interfaces, protocols etc. OpenGIS Implementation Specifications contain detailed software specifications for implementing standard interfaces, protocols etc. on particular distributed computing platforms such as the Web, SQL, OLE/COM and CORBA.
OpenGIS Reference Model (ORM)
The ORM is a document, part of the OGC Technical Baseline, that provides an overall conceptual framework for building geospatial processing into distributed systems in an incremental and interoperable manner.
OpenGIS Specification
An open software standard developed and adopted in OGC`s open consensus process that enables interoperable geoprocessing, which includes: real-time data sharing and process execution between GIS systems from different vendors; interoperation between dissimilar types of geoprocessing systems (GIS, Earth imaging, surveying and mapping, navigation, etc.); and efficient discovery of and access to remote geodata and geoprocessing resources in distributed computing environments.
OpenGIS, Open GIS and open GIS
OGC registered the trademark "Open GIS" and OpenGIS" in countries around the world to assert the importance of open standards in geoprocessing and to protect these standards with a legal brand. The phrase "open GIS" (with a small "o") is also a trademark of OGC, with the same meaning as "Open GIS," though "open GIS" is not a registered trademark.
See Open Location Services.
OpenLS Core Services
The basic services that comprise the open service platform (GeoMobility Server) defined under OpenLS.
A single step performed by a computer in the execution of a program, or, in the context of object-oriented programming: Specification of an interaction that can be requested from an object to effect behavior. ISO 19119
OpenGIS Reference Model
orthophoto map
Source: http://www.eurogeographics.org/Projects/GDDD/GDDD/lists/products.htm#52
Digital or digitized aerial photographs in which the pixels are geometrically rectified and given geographical references. The data structure is raster. An orthophoto map may include details of topography and names.
Use of photogrammetric techniques to adjust and correct distortions in mages.
OGC Web Services.
OWS Service Framework
(OSF) Identifies services, interfaces and exchange protocols that can be utilized by any application. OpenGIS Services are implementations of services that conform to OpenGIS Implementation Specifications. Compliant applications, called OpenGIS Applications, can then "plug into" the framework to join the operational environment.

Glossary of Terms - N

National Mapping Agencies
National government agencies, such as the UK's Ordnance Survey, France`s Institut Geographique National (IGN) and the US's US Geological Survey and Federal Geographic Data Committee, that are chartered to provide national mapping products and services.
National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI)
Information Infrastructure elements that make digital geographic information a part of everyone's digital information environment: data content and metadata standards; national Framework (base) data; metadata to help inventory, advertise, and intelligently search geographic data sets; a clearinghouse that allows for catalog searches across multiple geodata servers on the Internet; commercial geoprocessing products that interoperate through interfaces that conform to interoperability interface specifications; and partnerships to advance data sharing and NSDI development.
navigation service
An enhanced version of the Route Service, which is a network-accessible service that determines travel routes and navigation information between two or more points.
Non-governmental organization
National Information Infrastructure. A nation`s entire collection of public and private digital information, physical networks and network software, computers, and knowledge about how to use them.
National Mapping Agency
0-dimensional topology primitive (see OGC Abstract Specification (Topic 1) clause 7.3.12)
Neutral Transfer Format. Interchange of geographic information within UK

Glossary of Terms - M

A two-dimensional visual portrayal of geospatial data. A map is not the data itself.
map projection
A coordinate conversion from a geodetic coordinate system to a planar surface, converting geodetic latitude and longitude to plane (map) coordinates. The result is a two-dimensional coordinate system called a projected coordinate reference system.
map scale
The relationship between distance on a map and the corresponding distance on the earth`s surface. Map scale is often recorded as a representative fraction such as 1:1,000,000 (1 unit on the map represents a million units on the earth`s surface) or 1:24,000 (1 unit on the map represents 24,000 units on the earth`s surface). The terms `large` and `small` refer to the relative magnitude of the representative fraction. Since 1/1,000,000 is a smaller fraction than 1/24,000, the former is said to be a smaller scale. Small scales are often used to map large areas because each map unit covers a larger earth distance. Large-scale maps are employed for detailed maps of smaller areas.
An observation event whose value property is a value of some natural phenomenon. A measurement usually refers to the measuring device and procedure used to determine the value, such as a sensor or observer, analytical procedure, simulation or other numerical process. A measurement feature binds the result to the (spatiotemporal) location where the measurement was made.
message broker
Hubs designed to route and manage message traffic between various applications. May include transformation for incompatible messages.
Source: ISO 19115; KOGIS Switzerland; Co-ordination for GIS in the federal administration of Switzerland
"Data about data or a service. Metadata is the documentation of data. In human-readable form, it has primarily been used as information to enable the manager or user to understand, compare and interchange the content of the described data set. In the Web Services context, XML-encoded (machine-readable and human-readable) metadata stored in catalogs and registries enables services to use those catalogs and registries to find data and services.
metadata dataset
Source: ISO 19101
Metadata describing a specific dataset
metadata entity
Source: ISO 19115
Group of metadata elements and other metadata entities describing the same aspect of data. Note 1: A metadata entity may contain one or more metadata entities. Note 2: A metadata entity is equivalent to a class in UML terminology
metadata schema
Source: ISO 19101
Coceptual schema describing metadata Note: ISO 19115 describes a standard for metadata schema.
metadata section
Source: ISO 19115
Subset of metadata that defines a collection of related metadata entities and elements.
metadata translator
Software based on the OpenGIS Specification that will be configured by two diverse Information Communities to enable automated data integration or sharing to the degree that their metadata schema overlap.
Mid-Term Technical Baseline Target
The Mid-Term Technical Baseline Target is the subset of the elements of the Technical Plan that are scheduled to be completed between one and two calendar years into the future.
Software in a distributed computing environment that mediates between clients and servers.
OGC`s Multi-Hazard Mapping Initiative (MMI) Phase I (2001) was a pilot project sponsored by the US Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) that established a limited operational framework of interoperable services to illustrate the advantages of using products with OGC interfaces to access, fuse and visualize critical spatial information in support of FEMA multi-hazard mitigation, response and recovery functions.
modeling languages
Well-known "languages" to encode the semantics, syntax and schema of geospatial and geoprocessing-related information resources. They apply to all Application Domain Models and Runtime (Model) Components.
OGC`s Military Pilot Project (MPP) (2001) was a collaborative effort that tested the interoperability of commercial geoprocessing products in the defense and intelligence (DI) domain.

Glossary of Terms - L

Local Area Network. A system for connecting computers so they can communicate with one another.
A particular system of US satellites that scan the earth at a variety of wavelengths. The satellites return information that can be used to inventory and analyze a variety of natural and human resources.
language independent
Describes a standard or specification which is not specified in terms of a specific programming language, but is implementable in a variety of languages.
layered map visualization
Pictoral representation of geographic data
Source: PreANVIL Glossary http://www.anvil.eu.com/find/Glossary-english.htm
See Location Based Services
legacy system
In computing terms, a legacy System includes software or database components inherited from a previous computing model which do not fit into an open system environment without some modification. In the case of the OpenGIS Specification, legacy systems are modified to include OpenGIS-conformant interfaces.
line string
A set of coordinate points and the lines that join them.
Location Based Services (LBS)
Source: PreANVIL Glossary http://www.anvil.eu.com/find/Glossary-english.htm
Location Based Services (or "Location Services") deliver information about location to people who are using wireless, position-aware devices such as cell phones and PDAs. A wireless-IP service that uses geographic information to serve a mobile user. Any application service that exploits the position of a mobile terminal.
Location Dependent Services
Source: PreANVIL Glossary http://www.anvil.eu.com/find/Glossary-english.htm
"Services in which the location of the client, server or both form an integral part of the service "
Location Organizer Folder (LOF)
The general, multi-source information container model for handling sets of inter-related spatiotemporal information, including images, maps, features, cables, and any other information elements (e.g., audio, video, etc).
location service
Source: PreANVIL Glossary http://www.anvil.eu.com/find/Glossary-english.htm
A service that provides the location of a moving or fixed device
Long-Term Technical Baseline Target
The Long-Term Technical Baseline Target is the subset of the elements of the Technical Plan that are scheduled to be completed greater than two calendar years into the future.
loosely-coupled service
A service that can be used to operate on multiple, unspecified datasets. Calling application has no structural dependency on the interface of called application. Call is not made in same technology as the interface of the called application.
Lempel-Zif-Welch: a popular data compression technique developed in 1977 by J. Ziv and A Lempel. Unisys researcher Terry Welch later created an enhanced version of these methods, and Unisys holds a patent on the algorithm. It is widely used in many hardware and software products, including V.42bis modems, GIF and TIFF files and PostScript Level 2.

Glossary of Terms - J

A platform independent programming language developed by SunSoft. Any computer with the Java server software installed can run Java client applets that arrive over a network.
JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) Image format for continuous tone pictures: JPEG makes use of continuous-tone digital images much more economical by drastically reducing the volume required for storage and the bandwidth required for transmission.

Glossary of Terms - I

image metadata
XML encoding used to describe all types of images handled by OpenGIS Framework services. Image Metadata is used for publishing and discovery of types of original and derived images, image identifications, dates, spatial extents and other information that could be used to find and retrieve images from an archive.
A common way of collecting information associated with a coverage, by which the value of a continuous phenomenon is usually sampled at regular but discrete locations, i.e. pixels.
A software package that conforms to a standard or specification. A specific instance of a more generally defined system.
implementation profile
An Implementation Profile contains an interoperable set of implementation technologies. The languages and associated technologies that a functioning enterprise depends upon are part of the Implementation Profiles for an environment. In addition to modeling languages, Implementation Profiles contain inter-process communication protocols and other dependent infrastructure technologies that the framework employs.
implementation specification
Guidance for software engineers that is so specific that any two independent software implementations of the specification can "plug and play" for each other.
implementation view
Part of Information Viewpoint that captures how information must be represented within a working enterprise (i.e., how it is encoded for runtime use).
information appliance
End-user equipment having input and display (or auditory) capabilities for communication with other users or service providers in the NII.
Information Community
Source: The OpenGIS® Abstract Specification Topic 6: The Coverage Type and its Subtypes Version 6. A collection of people (a government agency or group of agencies, a profession, a group of researchers in the same discipline, corporate partners cooperating on a project, etc.) who, at least part of the time, share a common digital geographic information language and common spatial feature definitions. See Topic 14, Semantics and Information Communities.
Information Storage Interface (ISI)
The interface across which information technology interacts with external storage media. The service provided through this interface is persistent storage of data, where the physical storage media is often removable.
integrated client
A software application that provides a unified environment for visualizing, analyzing, and editing geospatial data from a wide variety of sources.
A named set of operations that characterize the behavior of an entity. An implementation of operations including the syntax of the interaction for a given distributed computing technology. A shared boundary between two functional entities. An established ordering of parameters (with specific names and data types) and instructions (with specific names and functions) that enables one software component to exchange data and instructions with another software component.
A service that provides functions by which to interconnect, adapt and facilitate services offered by other parties, components or environments. Common forms of intermediaries include agent, broker, mediator and trader services.
Source: OpenGIS Guide
Capability to communicate, execute programs, or transfer data among various functional units in a manner that requires the user to have little or no knowledge of the unique characteristics of those units ISO 2382-1. "The ability for a system or components of a system to provide information portability and interapplication, cooperative process control. Interoperability, in the context of the OpenGIS Specification, is software components operating reciprocally (working with each other) to overcome tedious batch conversion tasks, import/export obstacles, and distributed resource access barriers imposed by heterogeneous processing environments and heterogeneous data. "
Interoperability Program
The OGC Interoperability Program is a global, collaborative, hands-on engineering and testing program designed to deliver proven candidate specifications into the OGC Specification Development Program and to exercise and test existing OGC Implementation Specifications in domain specific situations.
Interoperability Program Report (IPR)
An IPR is provided by an Interoperability Program Initiative to the TC. IPR documents may be submitted to the OGC TC for review and comment. Depending on the desired outcome, the document type should be either "Information-Only", "Draft Discussion Paper", "Draft Recommendation Paper", or "RFC Proposal". The first, obviously, is intended for information only and is not to be considered for public release. The second approach is intended for consideration for public release as a Discussion Paper. The third is intended for consideration for public release as a Recommendation Paper. The last is intended for consideration as an RFC proposal (and must be submitted under the TC Policies and Procedures for RFCs). An IPR is not a publicly available document. An IPR will be provided to the TC in the correct IPR template format. An IPR does not represent the official position of the OGC nor of the OGC Technical Committee.
intrinsic resource
A registered resource for which the content model and normative representation are defined by the Registry Information Model (RIM).
See Interoperability Program Report.
International Organization for Standardization
ISO 19108, GI - Temporal Schema
See http://www.statkart.no/isotc211/scope.htm#19108 for a brief description.
ISO 19118, GI - Encoding,
See http://www.statart.no/isotc211/scope.htm#19118 for a brief description.
ISO/CD 19107.3, GI - Spatial Schema
See http://www.statkrt.no/isotc211/scope.htm#19107 for a brief description.
ISO/CD 19115 (ISO TC 211 N 1024, 201-01-30) GI - Metadata
See http://www.statkart.no/isotc211/scope.htm#19115 for a brief description.
ISO/CD 19119 (ISO TC 211 N 1044, 2001-01-29) GI - Services
See http://www.statkart.no/isotc211/scope.htm#19119 for a brief description.
Association role between topography primitives and those of co-deminsion 2 or greater. (see OGC Abstract Specification (Topic 1) clause

Glossary of Terms - H

An index entry or unique name in software that identifies a catalog entry or other resource so that it can be found and utilized by another software facility.
With respect to standards: activities undertaken by communities of experts to align standards. For example, to define common metadata and application schema from legacy sources, harmonization will consider: -- Architecture - multiple viewpoints that capture high level requirements, use cases, scenarios, information flows and computational flows. -- Data modelling - definition and UML encoding of feature type, attribute type, data type, coding, dependency mapping -- Schema modelling - UML mapping and encoding to GML, mapping of profiles to one another, and delineation to service types -- Iteration and development - build a little, see if it works, build more- -- Delivery to standards organizations for approval.
hierarchical database
A database that stores related information in terms of pre-defined categorical relationships in a `tree-like` fashion. Information is traced from a major group, to a subgroup, and to further subgroups. Much like tracing a family tree, data can be traced through parents along paths through the hierarchy. Users must keep track of the hierarchical structure in order to make use of the data. The relational database provides an alternative means of organizing datasets.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol, the World Wide Web protocol for moving hypertext (HTML) files across the Internet. OGC has defined a suite of Web Service interfaces that have explicit bindings for HTTP. Specifically, there are two HTTP bindings for invoking operations of a service (i.e., Sending a message): GET and POST.
human technology environment
The environment within which people interact with information technology, typically a mouse and windowing system.
human technology interface (HTI)
The interface across which people interact with information technology. The service provided through this interface is access to the information infrastructure and to other people.
The charting and description of bodies of water.

Glossary of Terms - G

gateway service
The Open Location Services (OLS) initiative introduced gateway services, which link location application services (accessed via the Internet or the Web) with mobile wireless-IP platforms, in support of small form factor mobile terminals.
Source: http://www.eurogeographics.org/Projects/GDDD/GDDD/lists/products.htm#52
A catalogue of toponyms (place names) assigned with geographic references. A gazetteer service retrieves the geometries for one or more features, given their associated well-known feature identifiers (text strings).
gazetteer model
The general model for representing online, well-known types of gazetteers.
general feature model
Metamodel of feature types. A feature may have properties that may be operations, attributes or associations. Any feature may have a number of attributes, some of which may be geometric and spatial. A feature is not defined in terms of a single geometry, but rather as a conceptually meaningful object within a particular domain of discourse, one or more of whose properties may be geometric.
general models
Source: The OpenGIS® Abstract Specification Topic 6: The Coverage Type and its Subtypes Version 6. http://www.opengis.org/techno/abstract/00-106.pdf
General Models Define the basic models for how geospatial information is to be characterized and encoded. To date, OGC has defined several types of General Models: (Simple) Feature Model, Coverage Model, Observation Model, Registry Model, Service Model, Data Catalog Model, Dictionary Model, Directory Model, and Gazetteer Model.
Transforms a description of a feature location, such as a place name, street address or postal code, into a normalized description of the location, which includes a coordinate geometry.
geocoder Service
Geocoding is the process of linking words, terms and codes found in a text string to their applicable geospatial features, with known positions (i.e., usually a point with x, y coordinates but more generally any geometry), e.g. converting a street address to a geographic location. The Geocoder Service Interface allows for a request providing an address or set of addresses and returns them along with the corresponding geometry (usually a point relative to a requested spatial reference system.) The request is "sent" to a Geocoder Service, which processes the request and returns the resulting geographic feature representing position.
Geocoding refers to the assignment of alphanumeric codes or coordinates to geographically reference data provided in a textual format. Examples are the two letter country codes and coordinates computed from addresses.
Digital data that represent the geographical location and characteristics of natural or man-made features, phenomena and boundaries of the Earth. Geodata represent abstractions of real-world entities, such as roads, buildings, vehicles, lakes, forests and countries. Geodata refers to such data in any format, including raster, vector, point, text, video, database records, etc.
geographic application
Applications which pertain to the Earth and Earth phenomena, with known spatial and temporal reference systems. Expressed in a human context versus computer context.
geographic data
See geospatial data.
geographic feature
Feature associated with a location relative to the Earth. The starting point for modeling of geographic information. A feature is an abstraction of a real world phenomenon. A geographic feature is a feature associated with a location relative to the Earth. A digital representation of the real world can be thought of as a set of features. Geographic features occur at two levels: feature instances and feature types. At the instance level, a geographic feature is represented as a discrete phenomenon that is associated with its geographic and temporal coordinates. These individual feature instances are grouped into classes with common characteristics - feature types.
geographic model
A model of the real world that recognizes an integrated family of spatial features
Geographic Objects
The vision for the Geographic Objects Initiative is to define platform-independent and implementation-neutral interface models of specific geographic services or component objects.
geographic reference system
A 3D reference coordinate system with well-defined origin and orientation of the coordinate axes. A mathematical system.
Geography Markup Language (GML)
OGC`s XML-based language for describing and encoding geospatial information. An application of XML, a specification developed by members of the Open GIS Consortium. http://www.opengis.org/techno/specs/00-029/GML.html ". GML is an XML encoding for spatial data. In a sense, it is a schema-writing language for spatial information.
geometric object
A combination of a coordinate geometry and a coordinate reference system. In general, a geometric object is a set of geometric points.
GeoMobility Server
The open service platform comprising the Core Services developed under the OGC OpenLS initiatives.
geoparser service
Geoparsing refers to the capability to process a textual document and identify key words and phrases that have a spatial context. A Geoparsing Interface implementing this specification works in the context of two bodies of information: a reserved vocabulary (usually of place names, such as a gazetteer) and a text source (e.g., a newspaper, or voice track.) The Geoparser Service returns all occurrences of the use (in the text source) of any word in the reserved vocabulary. Each occasion establishes a geolink between the source and the location associated with the reserved word.
Use of computers to acquire, analyze, store, display, and distribute information about geographic features. This includes GIS and systems for remote sensing (Earth imaging), facilities management, automated mapping, cartography, navigation, and location services.
geoprocessing applications
Computer applications which model, interpret and use Earth information. The implementation of a Geographic Application on a computer. The terms `geoprocessing,` `geomatics,` and `geotechnology` mean approximately the same thing, though some groups make minor distinctions among them.
georectified gridded data
A cell in a georectified gridded data can be uniquely geolocated, given the cell spacing, grid origin and orientation. Ungeorectified gridded data are irregularly spaced in any geographic/map projection coordinate system. Therefore, the location of one cell in an ungeorectified gridded data cannot be determined based on another cell's location. One approach to rectifying imagery utilizes a sensor description.
Source: PreANVIL Glossary http://www.anvil.eu.com/find/Glossary-english.htm
Description of a location relative to the Earth
Referring to location relative to the Earth's surface. "Geospatial" is more precise in many GI contexts than "geographic," because geospatial information is often used in ways that do not involve a graphic representation, or map, of the information.
geospatial data
Location properties related to any terrestrial feature or phenomena. Location properties may include any information about the location or area of, and relationships among, and descriptive information about geographic features and phenomena. This includes remotely sensed data, vector map data, addresses, coordinates, etc. Note that "geospatial data" is more precise in many contexts than "geographic data," because geospatial data is often used in ways that do not involve a graphic representation, or map, created from the data.
Geospatial Fusion Services
Source: PreANVIL Glossary http://www.anvil.eu.com/find/Glossary-english.htm
Non-map information - text, video, audio, digital photographs, mpeg movies, sensor data, word processing documents, etc. - often refers to place. Geospatial Fusion Services enable the "fusing" of information such as addresses, place names, coordinates, pinpoints on photographs, and descriptive directions into one information management framework that supports search, discovery, and sharing of spatial information stored in non-map formats.
geospatial information
Information about entities and phenomena that includes their location with respect to the Earth`s surface. Frequently used as a synonym to geodata, but technically, geodata are "dry" digitally represented facts or recorded observations which on their own have no meaning. They become information when interpreted and put in context by humans.
geospatial portal
A Web site that provides a view into a universe of spatial content and activity through a variety of links to other sites, communication and collaboration tools, and special features geared toward the community served by the portal. As an open Web resource, a geospatial portal should connect through open interfaces to data and services with similar interfaces. Catalogs and registries that conform to OpenGIS Specifications play an important role in geospatial portals.
Data interchange standard for raster geographic images. An extension of the TIFF format to support a geodetically sound raster data georeferencing capability. The aim of GeoTIFF is to allow a means for tying a raster image to a known model space or map projection, and for describing those projections. The geographic content supported in GeoTIFF tag structure includes its cartographic projection, datum, ground pixel dimension, and other geographic variables.
GFS Testbed
OGC`s GFS Testbed yielded a set of candidate standard specifications for open interfaces and protocols that begin to support "geospatial fusion."
Graphic Interchange Format An image format commonly used on the Web
National Information Infrastructure. The world`s entire collection of public and private digital information, physical networks and network software, computers, and knowledge about how to use them.
Source: AGI glossary. http://www.geo.ed.ac.uk/agidict/welcome.html
"Geographic Information System. A computer system for capturing, storing, checking, integrating, manipulating, analyzing and displaying data related to positions on the Earth`s surface. " Both vector and raster GISs are available.
GIS application
Source: OpenGIS Guide
"The use of capabilities, including hardware, software and data, provided by a Geographic Information System specific to the satisfaction of a set of user requirements. Example of a GIS application: Spatial decision support system application for district planning purposes."
The Geospatial Information for Sustainable Development Initial Capability Pilot (GISD-ICP) is the first of a series of projects to help make geographic information more accessible and useful to decision makers working on sustainable development problems.
Global Spatial Data Infrastructure (GSDI)
A set of policies, standards, practices, technologies, and relationships to facilitate the flow of geographic data and information at all levels across government, academic, and private sectors globally. A linking of National Spatial Data Infrastructures. See www.gsdi.org.
Source: Wikipedia
A globe is a three-dimensional scale model of Earth (terrestrial globe or geographical globe) or other celestial body such as a planet or moon. While models can be made of objects with arbitrary or irregular shapes, the term globe is used only for models of objects that are approximately spherical.
Source: PreANVIL Glossary http://www.anvil.eu.com/find/Glossary-english.htm
"Geographic Mark-up Language: an application of XML, a specification developed by members of the Open GIS Consortium. http://www.opengis.org/techno/specs/00-029/GML.html ". GML is an XML encoding for spatial data. In a sense, it is a schema-writing language for spatial information.
GML Application Schema
An XML Schema written according to the GML 3 rules for Application Schemas, which defines a vocabulary of geographic objects for a particular domain of discourse
Source: PreANVIL Glossary http://www.anvil.eu.com/find/Glossary-english.htm
Global Positioning System: (1) a network of satellites that interact with special receivers to position the receiver relative to the Earth. (2) describing the generic approach to using a network of satellites to deliver a positioning service. Although GPS can be used to determine location very precisely (within centimeters given the correct controls and proper use, it does not solve all the problems of location determination in GIS databases.