OGC Glossary

Glossary of Terms - X

XML for Imagery and Map Annotations, OGC Discussion Paper 01-018: 29.XML Linking Language (XLink), Version 1.0, DeRose, S., Maler, E., Orchard, D., available at: http://www.w3.org/TR/xlink/
Source: PreANVIL Glossary http://www.anvil.eu.com/find/Glossary-english.htm
XML (eXtensible Markup Language) is the predominant form for interoperable, self-describing data/content, in combination with XML schema definition language. See http://www.w3.org/XML/. XML has its roots in SGML, the Standard Generalized Markup Language (an ISO standard). The development of XML came about because of perceived limitations in HTML when used as a tool for publishing complex documents on the Web. http://www.w3.org.
XML for Imagery and Map Annotations (XIMA)
The means to encode annotations on imagery, maps, and other geospatial data.
XML for Location Services (XLS)
The encoding method for OpenLS-based Abstract Data Types.
"(eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformation) A language used to convert an XML document into another XML document or into HTML, PDF or some other format."

Glossary of Terms - W

World Wide Web Consortium. The organization that manages standards for the Worldwide Web.
Web Coverage Service (WCS)
Supports the networked interchange of geospatial data as "coverages" containing values or properties of geographic locations. Unlike the Web Map Service, which returns static maps (server-rendered as pictures), the Web Coverage Service provides access to intact (unrendered) geospatial information.
Web Feature Service (WFS)
OpenGIS Specification that supports INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, QUERY and DISCOVERY of geographic features. WFS delivers GML representations of simple geospatial features in response to queries from HTTP clients. Clients access geographic feature data through WFS by submitting a request for just those features that are needed for an application.
Web mapping
Dynamic query, access, processing, combination and portrayal of different types of spatial information over the Web.
Web Mapping Service (WMS)
OpenGIS Specification that standardizes the way in which Web clients request maps. Clients request maps from a WMS instance in terms of named layers and provide parameters such as the size of the returned map as well as the spatial reference system to be used in drawing the map.
Web Mapping Testbeds (WMT) Phases 1 and 2
The groundbreaking Web Mapping Testbed Phase 1 (WMT 1), which ran from June, 1999 to October, 1999, yielded candidate interface specifications for Web mapping that were subsequently approved by OGC`s Technical Committee and Planning Committee. The Web Mapping Testbed Phase 2 (WMT 2), which ran from June, 2000 to March, 2001 expanded on this foundation with extensions to those specifications and a set of new draft specifications
Web Registry Service
The Web Registry Service is a software component that supports the run-time discovery and evaluation of resources such as services, datasets, and application schemes.
Web Service Flow Language (WSFL)
Available at: www.oasis-open.org/cover/wsfl.html
Web Services
"Web services are self-contained, self-describing, modular applications that can be published, located, and invoked across the Web. Web services perform functions that can be anything from simple requests to complicated business processes. Once a Web service is deployed, other applications (and other Web services) can discover and invoke the deployed service."
Web Services Definition Language (WSDL)
Available at: http://www.w3.org/TR/wsdl
Web Services Description Language (WSDL)
The language for describing and encoding services. The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a draft specification from W3C to describe networked services in terms of what they can do, where they reside on the network and how to invoke them.
Well-Known Binary Representation for Geometry (WKBGeometry)
Data format that provides a portable representation of a Geometry value as a contiguous stream of bytes. Obtained by serializing a geometric object as a sequence of numeric types drawn from the set {Unsigned Integer, Double} and then serializing each numeric type as a sequence of bytes using one of two well defined, standard, binary representations for numeric types (NDR, XDR).
Well-Known Text Representation of Spatial Reference Systems
Format that provides a standard textual representation for spatial reference system information. The definitions of the well-known text representations are modeled after the POSC/EPSG coordinate data.
See Web Feature Service.
See Web Map Service
WMS Context
XML document that unambiguously describes the state or "context" of a WMS client states that accounts for a specific grouping of one or more maps from one or more map servers can be described in a portable, platform-independent format for storage in a repository of for transmission between WMS clients
Working Group (WG)
In OGC, a group of individuals composed of members of the Technical Committee and invited guests, working to solve some particular problem or problems in a particular arena of interoperable geoprocessing. A particular use of the Working Group structure is to generate Requests for Information or Requests for Proposal, and to evaluate responses.
See Web Registry Service.
Web Services Description Language
Source: PreANVIL Glossary http://www.anvil.eu.com/find/Glossary-english.htm
"World Wide Web: a collection of protocols, based on IP, and infrastructure that enable efficient, user-friendly publishing, discovery and access to digital information."

Glossary of Terms - V

The process of testing an application or system to ensure that it conforms to a specification.
A representation of the spatial extent of geographic features using geometric elements (such as point, curve, and surface) in a coordinate space.
vector displays and databases
Databases that build all geographic features from point, that is, from discrete X-Y locations. Lines are constructed from strings of points, and polygons (regions) are built from lines which close.
vector methods
In geoprocessing, methods of representing geographic features from points, lines, and polygons, as opposed to raster techniques which record geographic features within a matrix of grid cells. The choice between vector and raster GIS has much to do with the application being considered since both methods have strengths and weaknesses. Many current GIS permit transformation between vector and raster input and output.
SQL `Select`, Statement, used to provide temporary information about a given table(s) of a Database Management System without actually creating a subset or new table.
Form of abstraction achieved using a selected set of architectural concepts and structuring rules, in order to focus on particular concerns within a system. ISO-10746-2 In an RM-ODP based description of a multi-tier, multi-network architecture, the Enterprise, Information, and Computation viewpoints describe a system in terms of its purposes, its content, and its functions.
virtual reality (VR)
Refers generally to interactive multimedia environments that present users with a sensory experience similar in some ways to our experience of the real world.
Vector Product Format. A published vector format used by the US Department of Defense.

Glossary of Terms - U

Source: http://www.softwareag.com/xml/about/glossary.htm
"Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration, a standard for a platform-independent, open framework for describing services on the Internet, suggested by, among others, IBM, Ariba and Microsoft, September 6, 2000. UDDI is intended mainly for B2B enhancement and is based on the W3C`s XML standard and, especially on SOAP". UDDI provides a mechanism for clients to dynamically find other Web services. A UDDI registry is similar to a CORBA trader, or it can be thought of as a DNS service for business applications. A UDDI registry has two kinds of clients: businesses that want to publish a service (and its usage interfaces), and clients who want to obtain services of a certain kind and bind programmatically to them.

use case scenario
Source: GETIS glossary
A possible sequence of real world events used as a test case for specifying or testing information systems designed to help manage such events.
user domain
Source: GETIS glossary
"User group with common interests in activities in a specific discipline, parts of a discipline or a type of GIS application, e.g. local government, fire brigades, etc."
user portability
The ability of a user to move from one system to another without having to relearn everything necessary to use such as system.
UTM Coordinate System (Universal Tranverse Mercator)
A planar locational reference system which provides positional descriptions accurate to 1 meter in 2,500 across the entire earth`s surface except the poles. Based on the Universal Transverse Mercator map projection. At the poles, the Universal Polar Stereographic projection is used. The UTM system divides the earth`s surface into a grid in which each cell, excluding overlap with its neighbors, is 6 degrees east to west, and 8 degrees north to south (with the exception of the row from 72-84 degrees north latitude). For any position in the UTM grid, X-Y coordinates can be determined in eastings and northings. Eastings are in meters with respect to a central meridian drawn through the center of each grid zone (and given an arbitrary easting of 500,000 meters). In the northern hemisphere, northings are read in meters from the equator (0 meters). In the southern hemisphere, the equator is given the false northing of 10 million meters.

Glossary of Terms - T

Source: PreANVIL Glossary http://www.anvil.eu.com/find/Glossary-english.htm
Technical Committee within ISO for Geographic Information/ Geomatics standards
Technical Baseline
The OGC Technical Baseline, at any point in time, is the set of all Adopted Specifications plus all other technical documents that have been approved by the OGC Technical and Planning Committees, including the OpenGIS Reference Model, OpenGIS Abstract Specifications, Recommendation Papers, and Discussion Papers.
Technical Committee
In the OGC Specification Program, the OGC Technical Committee reviews specifications for interfaces and encodings developed either in the Interoperability Program by groups of members, or through an internal proposals process. The Technical Committee and Planning Committee then approve these as "adopted" OpenGIS® Specifications for release to the public. The OGC Technical Committee is comprised of the technical representatives of all OGC member organizations. The Technical Committee does the bulk of its work through its Working Groups.
Technical Plan
The OGC Technical Plan, at any point in time, is the set of planned modifications and additions to the Technical Baseline that could occur over a given time horizon. This includes both the specification documents as well as the Supporting Material.
Technology Insertion Project
In OGC: Collaborative project focusing on expanding an organization's interoperability capacity by laying the infrastructure (groundwork) for open implementations.
technology viewpoint
RM-ODP viewpoint concerned with the underlying infrastructure in a distributed system. It describes the hardware and software components used in a distributed system. The infrastructure, which may be provided by a Distributed Computing Platform (DCP), allows objects to interoperate across computer networks, hardware platforms, operating systems and programming languages.
temporal reference system
The temporal reference system package in the ORM provides elements for describing temporal reference systems, e.g., calendars and clocks.
In the context of OGC's Interoperability Program, a testbed is a collaborative activity in which sponsors provide interoperability requirements and financial support and technology providers team to develop prototype interoperability interfaces, protocols etc. that meet those requirements. The testbed concludes with a public demonstration, and the prototype-derived specifications are submitted to the OGC Technical Committee for review and approval.
thematic map
A map showing, by color or pattern, the distribution of a single phenomenon
thick clients
Clients that handle much of the necessary computation and data/metadata management themselves; and rather than invoking the processing services of other components, they obtain their inputs through low-level data-access requests.
thin clients
Clients that rely on invoking the services of other components (servers, middleware) for most of the computation they need to function in the system; they also rely on other components to manage most of the data and metadata they use.
Tagged Image File Format. A graphic file format developed by Aldus and Microsoft.
Topologically integrated geographic encoding and referencing file. This is a type of digital map developed by the U.S. Bureau of the Census to support the 1990 population census. Census maps in TIGER format succeed the previous DIME format. TIGER files are available for every county in the United States and for the millions of census blocks in urban areas. Although the accuracy of TIGER files varies from county to county, partly for reasons beyond the control of the Bureau, they are likely to improve in coming decades. The TIGER files are a particularly important resource for many urban GIS. The Census Bureau is moving to provide TIGER data in GML.
tightly coupled data and service
An instance of a service associated with a specific instance of a dataset.
Calling application must have detailed knowledge of interfaces of called application. Call is likely made in same technology, and using same call structure.
A software component, sometimes called an application object, which can act as either a service provider or service requester within an application platform.
topographic map
Source: AGI glossary. http://www.geo.ed.ac.uk/agidict/welcome.html
"A map whose principal purpose is to portray the features of the earth`s surface. These features might include the cultural landscape, but normally refer to the terrain and its relief."
Properties of geometric forms that remain invariant when the forms are deformed or transformed by bending, stretching, and shrinking. Among the topological properties of concern in GIS are connectivity, order, and neighborhood. One productive use of topology is to accelerate computational geometry. Geometric calculations such as containment (point-in-polygon), adjacency, boundary, and network tracking are computationally intensive. For this reason, combinatorial structures known as topological complexes are constructed to convert computational geometry algorithms into combinatorial algorithms. Another purpose is, within the geographic information domain, to relate feature instances independently of their geometry.
A kind of intermediary service which acquires services from one or more providers for `resale` to a service requester. The trader service insulates requester and provider services from having to interact directly with one another. The trader is responsible to the requester for all aspects of the requested service.
transfer protocol
Source: ISO 19118
Common set of rules for defining interactions between distributed systems.
The process of converting data or commands from one computer format to another, or from one computer language to another.
The ability of systems or components of systems to hide the details of their implementations from other client or server systems or components of systems.
An ordered set. Such a set of coordinates that define a point.

Glossary of Terms - S

Spatial Archive and Interchange FormatÂ
The ability to change the component configuration of a system to fit desired application contexts.
scanned map
Source: http://www.eurogeographics.org/Projects/GDDD/GDDD/lists/products.htm#52
Analogue maps digitized by scanning. The data structure of scanned maps is raster.
A structured framework. A metadata schema specifies the order and types and labels of information elements describing a geodata set.
Standards based commercial off-the-shelf software. ("Off the shelf" means that the product is commercially available, without any need for customization.)
Source: PreANVIL Glossary http://www.anvil.eu.com/find/Glossary-english.htm
"(Geo)Spatial Data Infrastructure: a comprehensive package of consensus and initiatives required to enable complete provision of data, access and privacy within the territory of the designated infrastructure."
Source: PreANVIL Glossary http://www.anvil.eu.com/find/Glossary-english.htm
Standards Development Organization: any international organization that develops standards for the whole community. Includes de jure SDOs and standards consortia.
Spatial Data Transfer Standard. A standard vector format developed by the US Federal Geographic Data Committee.
semantic translator
A collection of mappings between a target Information Community`s data model and a source Information Community`s data model, generally held and maintained by the target Information Community, though both Information Communities may participate in configuring it. Usually expressed in terms of metadata, features, attributes and rules that permit information integration to occur when a feature collection is imported to the target Information Community from a source Information Community.
Sensor Collection Service (SCS)
Provides a web-enabled interface to a sensor, collection of sensors or sensor proxy. The Sensor Collection Service provides a standard interface for clients to collect and access sensor observations and manipulate them in different ways. SCS instances are collection points on the web for disparate types and instances of sensors. SCS instances deliver sensor observation values (e.g., temperature, ppm, chemical type) in response to queries form HTTP clients.
sensor domain model
The definition of a specific sensor type in accordance with the general sensor model.
Sensor Model Language
(SML) OGC`s XML-based language for describing and encoding sensors (in situ, satellite and airborne).
sensor web
A networked collection of sensors that can be remotely read and perhaps also controlled.
Sensor Web Enablement
OGC`s initiative to develop standards that support linking of environmental sensors to the World Wide Web. A Sensor Collection Service (SCS) server gathers readings from in-situ environmental sensors via a private network (cellular, microwave, etc.), and provides summaries or interpretations of those readings to SCS clients over the Web.
A computation performed by a software entity on one side of an interface in response to a request made by a software entity on the other side of the interface. A collection of operations, accessible through an interface, that allows a user to evoke a behavior of value to the user. ISO - 19119
service chain
A sequence of services where, for each adjacent pair of services, occurrence of the first action is necessary for the occurrence of the second action ISO 19119.
service interface
Source: ISO 19101
Shared boundary between an automated system or human being and another automated system or human being
service metadata
The most basic operation all OGC services must provide is the ability to describe themselves. This "Get Capabilities" operation, yielding a capabilities document, is common to all OWS1 services. An XML vocabulary comprised of several parts for describing different aspects of a service. The first unit describes the service interface in sufficient detail so that an automated process can read the description and invoke an operation that the service advertises. A second unit describes the data content of the service (or the data it operates on) in a way that enables service requestors to dynamically compose requests for service.
Service Model
The general model for online services.
service request
A request by a client of an operation from a service.
An ESRI published spatial data format.
Standard interchange format. SIF is a format which allows data to be transferred among dissimilar computer systems. SQL stands for Structured Query Language, a relational database.
Simple Feature Model
The general, descriptive model for how earth features may be represented as vector objects (i.e., points, lines and polygons).
Source: PreANVIL Glossary http://www.anvil.eu.com/find/Glossary-english.htm
Small or Medium Sized Enterprise (1-500 employed persons)
Source: http://www.softwareag.com/xml/about/glossary.htm
"Simple Object Access Protocol, a method invented by Microsoft to use RPC over the internet via HTTP calls. SOAP is now published as an W3C Note and implemented, among others, as part of the Apache XML Project." SOAP is a protocol specification that defines a uniform way of passing XML-encoded data. It also defines a way to perform remote procedure calls (RPCs) using HTTP as the underlying communication protocol. Development of SOAP is in the care of the W3C`s XML Protocols Working Group.
spatial reference system
Source: The OpenGIS® Abstract Specification Topic 2: "Spatial Referencing by Coordinates" http://www.opengis.org/techno/abstract/02-102.pdf
As defined in the OpenGIS Abstract Specification Topic 2 and ISO 19111. Position on or near the Earth's surface can be described by spatial reference systems. These are of two basic types: those using coordinates; and those based on geographic identifiers (for example postal addresses, administrative areas). Spatial referencing by geographic identifiers is defined in ISO 19112, Geographic information - "Spatial referencing by geographic identifiers." The subject matter of The OpenGIS® Abstract Specification Topic 2: "Spatial Referencing by Coordinates" is spatial referencing by coordinates.
Spatial Web
The Spatial Web is the spatially enabled World Wide Web. It is also the set of Web-resident open geospatial resources -- data, schemas and services - that enable people to publish, find and use Web-resident geospatial information off all kinds.
A document written by a consortium, vendor, or user that specifies a technological area with a well-defined scope, primarily for use by developers as a guide to implementation. A specification is not necessarily a formal standard.
Specification Program
The OGC Specification Program provides an industry consensus process to plan, review and officially adopt OpenGIS Specifications for interfaces and protocols that enable interoperable geoprocessing services, data, and applications. The OGC bodies involved in the Specification Program are the Technical Committee, Planning Committee, and Strategic Member Advisory Committee.
Source: http://www.softwareag.com/xml/about/glossary.htm
Structured Query Language. "SQL is a standard interactive and programming language for getting information from and updating a database. Although SQL is both an ANSI and an ISO standard, many database products support SQL with proprietary extensions to the standard language"
A document that specifies a technological area with a well-defined scope, usually by a formal standardization body and process.
State Plane Coordinate System (SPC)
A locational reference system developed in the U.S. in the 1930s which provides positional descriptions accurate to 1 foot in 10,000. The SPC system divides the United States into 125 zones (5 cover Texas) and employs both Lambert conformal and Transverse Mercator projections (depending upon a state`s size and shape). Within any given SPC zone, X-Y coordinates are given in eastings and northings. A central meridian passes each zone and is given a false easting of 2 million feet. A false northing of 0 feet is established below the southern limit of each zone.
stove pipe or stove piped
Colloquial term describing systems that are 'islands of automation,' that do not interoperate with other systems. Data in at the bottom, data out at the top, no sharing of data or services laterally.
Strategic Member Advisory Committee (SMAC)
The SMAC is granted authority to operate by the OGC by-laws. The SMAC has as a primary responsibility to recommend areas of strategic opportunity for Consortium operations and to recommend resource strategies in support of Consortium programs to the Board of Directors, Consortium staff and the Membership.
structured code
Refers to software designed such that a small central program makes calls to subroutines organized in external libraries: as opposed to the `spaghetti` code of large monolithic programs with integral functions and subroutines. This approach enables libraries called application programming interfaces (APIs) to provide a standard set of `hooks` by which a program can cooperate with other programs.
Styles provide the mapping from feature types and feature properties and constraints to parameterized symbols used in drawing maps
Styled Layer Descriptors (SLD)
A map-styling language for producing georeferenced maps with user-defined styling
Source: http://www.softwareag.com/xml/about/glossary.htm
"A program written in a stylesheet language for converting and/or presenting HTML, SGML, or XML documents. Stylesheet languages are e.g. CSS for HTML (and CSS2 for XML too), XSL for XML and FOSI and DSSSL for both SGML and XML."
Collection of components. E.g. Customer Management contains many software components including Party, Location, Post Code look-up, and assign new ID number.
2-deminsional geometric primitive, locally representing a continuous image of a region of a plane. (see OGC Abstract Specification (Topic 1) clause 6.3.17)
Surface Configuration Model
Defines the geometric characteristics of the Earth`s surface, exclusive of features which fall upon the surface; defined in terms of elevation, shape, roughness, slope, and aspect, with the later properties possibly derived from elevation.
"Scalable Vector Graphics, a language for describing two-dimensional vector and mixed vector/raster graphics in XML. SVG graphic types include text and XSLT can transform XML documents into SVG output. Thus SVG is a possible replacement for XSL FO. SVG tools are provided by IBM, CSIRO and Adobe." SVG is a standard application programming interface (API) for displaying graphics encoded in XML. SVG is used for presentation of GML data.
Symbols are bundles of predefined graphical parameters and predefined fixed graphic "images".
Methodology for describing symbols and mapping of the schema to an application schema. Portrayal requires symbology.
Calling application requires response to request before proceeding.
System Internal Interface (SII)
An interface between components within an application platform.

Glossary of Terms - R

Source: PreANVIL Glossary http://www.anvil.eu.com/find/Glossary-english.htm
The representation of spatial data as a matrix of valued cells. Originally, a raster was a scan line in an electronic display such as a television or computer monitor. In geoprocessing, raster refers to a digital representation of the extent of geographic data sets using "grid cells" in a matrix. A raster display builds an image from pixels, small square picture elements of coarse or fine resolution. A raster database maintains a "picture" of reality in which each cell records some sort of information averaged over the cell`s area. The size of the grid cell may range from centimeters to kilometers. Many satellites transmit raster images of the earth`s surface. Reflectance of sunlight at a certain wavelength is measured for each cell in an image.
Refers generally to systems that respond (almost) immediately or synchronously to external events.
Recommendation Paper
An OGC document containing discussion of some technology or specification area, prepared by a Working Group for release to the public. Recommendation Papers are the official position of the OGC and thus represent an endorsement of the content of the paper.
reference data
European term for a collaborative effort to create a widely available source of basic geographic data, providing national or European coverage of a set of common digital geographic data such as Elevation, Transportation, Hydrography, Cadastral, Geodetic Control, Governmental Units, etc. (Similar to "framework data" in the U.S.)
Reference Implementation
An operational, conformant implementation of an implementation specification, together with available source code, that is made available for public use for testing and development purposes. (a Reference Implementation refers to one or more OpenGIS Implementation Specifications.)
reference model
Provides the complete scientific and engineering contextual framework for a technology area. Includes the underlying elements, rules and behaviors.
register of geodetic points
Source: http://www.eurogeographics.org/Projects/GDDD/GDDD/lists/products.htm#52
"A catalogue of geodetic control points, e.g. trigonometric points and leveling benchmarks."
register of land
Source: http://www.eurogeographics.org/Projects/GDDD/GDDD/lists/products.htm#52
"A general term used for the designation of registers for ownership of land, e.g. cadastre and registers of territorial rights."
Registry Model
The general model for online registries. Sensor Model - The general model for sensor phenomena; the general sensor model for describing well-known sensors.
registry object
Every registered resource is a registry object. Dataset metadata and service metadata are examples of registry objects. All metadata and data types are regarded as registry objects.
registry services
OWS Services that provide a common mechanism to classify, register, describe, search, maintain and access information about resources available on a network. Resources are network addressable instances of typed data or services.
Relational Data Base
Stores data in such a way that it can be added to, and used independently of, all other data stored in the database. Users can query a relational database without knowing how the information has been organized. Although relational databases have the advantages of ease-of-use and analytical flexibility, their weakness can be slower retrieval speed. SQL (structured query language) is an interface to a relational database.
Remote Procedure Call (RPC)
An API for remote (across the network) execution of detailed functions.
remote sensing
Acquisition of raster images of the Earth, often involving spectral frequencies other than the visible band, by devices typically carried on airborne or satellite platforms. Sometimes refers also to image analysis of these images.
reporting group
Source: ISO 19113; ISO 19109
Data with common characteristics forming a subset of a dataset. Note 1: Common characteristics can include belonging to an identified feature type, feature attribute or feature relationship; sharing of data collection criteria; sharing original source; or being within a specified geographic or temporal extent. Note 2: A reporting group can be as small as a feature instance, an attribute value, or a single feature relationship.
Invocation of an operation by a client
Request for Comment (RFC)
In the context of OpenGIS Specification Development, an explicit request to the industry for comments concerning a particular technology that an OGC Technical Committee Working Group or Interoperability Initiative is considering for development or adoption as an OpenGIS Specification.
Request for Information (RFI)
In the context of OpenGIS Specification Development, a general request to the industry to submit information to one of the OGC Technical Committee Working Groups.
Request for Proposals (RFP)
In the context of OpenGIS Interoperability Program, an explicit request to the industry to submit proposals for work to be performed as part of an Interoperability Initiative.
Result of an operation returned from a server to a client
reverse geocoder service
A network-accessible service that transforms a given position into a normalized description of a feature location (Address with Point), where the address may be defined as a street address, intersection address, place name or postal code
Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing (ISO/IEC 10746). In RM-ODP, Architecture is defined as a set of components, connections, and topologies defined through a series of views: enterprise, information, computation, engineering and technology.
route service
A network-accessible service that determines travel routes and navigation information between two or more points.
Source: PreANVIL Glossary http://www.anvil.eu.com/find/Glossary-english.htm
Research and Technology Development: a term used in the European IST program.