OGC Glossary

Glossary of Terms - R

Definitions: 
raster
Source: PreANVIL Glossary http://www.anvil.eu.com/find/Glossary-english.htm
The representation of spatial data as a matrix of valued cells. Originally, a raster was a scan line in an electronic display such as a television or computer monitor. In geoprocessing, raster refers to a digital representation of the extent of geographic data sets using "grid cells" in a matrix. A raster display builds an image from pixels, small square picture elements of coarse or fine resolution. A raster database maintains a "picture" of reality in which each cell records some sort of information averaged over the cell`s area. The size of the grid cell may range from centimeters to kilometers. Many satellites transmit raster images of the earth`s surface. Reflectance of sunlight at a certain wavelength is measured for each cell in an image.
real-time
Refers generally to systems that respond (almost) immediately or synchronously to external events.
Recommendation Paper
An OGC document containing discussion of some technology or specification area, prepared by a Working Group for release to the public. Recommendation Papers are the official position of the OGC and thus represent an endorsement of the content of the paper.
reference data
European term for a collaborative effort to create a widely available source of basic geographic data, providing national or European coverage of a set of common digital geographic data such as Elevation, Transportation, Hydrography, Cadastral, Geodetic Control, Governmental Units, etc. (Similar to "framework data" in the U.S.)
Reference Implementation
An operational, conformant implementation of an implementation specification, together with available source code, that is made available for public use for testing and development purposes. (a Reference Implementation refers to one or more OpenGIS Implementation Specifications.)
reference model
Provides the complete scientific and engineering contextual framework for a technology area. Includes the underlying elements, rules and behaviors.
register of geodetic points
Source: http://www.eurogeographics.org/Projects/GDDD/GDDD/lists/products.htm#52
"A catalogue of geodetic control points, e.g. trigonometric points and leveling benchmarks."
register of land
Source: http://www.eurogeographics.org/Projects/GDDD/GDDD/lists/products.htm#52
"A general term used for the designation of registers for ownership of land, e.g. cadastre and registers of territorial rights."
Registry Model
The general model for online registries. Sensor Model - The general model for sensor phenomena; the general sensor model for describing well-known sensors.
registry object
Every registered resource is a registry object. Dataset metadata and service metadata are examples of registry objects. All metadata and data types are regarded as registry objects.
registry services
OWS Services that provide a common mechanism to classify, register, describe, search, maintain and access information about resources available on a network. Resources are network addressable instances of typed data or services.
Relational Data Base
Stores data in such a way that it can be added to, and used independently of, all other data stored in the database. Users can query a relational database without knowing how the information has been organized. Although relational databases have the advantages of ease-of-use and analytical flexibility, their weakness can be slower retrieval speed. SQL (structured query language) is an interface to a relational database.
Remote Procedure Call (RPC)
An API for remote (across the network) execution of detailed functions.
remote sensing
Acquisition of raster images of the Earth, often involving spectral frequencies other than the visible band, by devices typically carried on airborne or satellite platforms. Sometimes refers also to image analysis of these images.
reporting group
Source: ISO 19113; ISO 19109
Data with common characteristics forming a subset of a dataset. Note 1: Common characteristics can include belonging to an identified feature type, feature attribute or feature relationship; sharing of data collection criteria; sharing original source; or being within a specified geographic or temporal extent. Note 2: A reporting group can be as small as a feature instance, an attribute value, or a single feature relationship.
request
Invocation of an operation by a client
Request for Comment (RFC)
In the context of OpenGIS Specification Development, an explicit request to the industry for comments concerning a particular technology that an OGC Technical Committee Working Group or Interoperability Initiative is considering for development or adoption as an OpenGIS Specification.
Request for Information (RFI)
In the context of OpenGIS Specification Development, a general request to the industry to submit information to one of the OGC Technical Committee Working Groups.
Request for Proposals (RFP)
In the context of OpenGIS Interoperability Program, an explicit request to the industry to submit proposals for work to be performed as part of an Interoperability Initiative.
response
Result of an operation returned from a server to a client
reverse geocoder service
A network-accessible service that transforms a given position into a normalized description of a feature location (Address with Point), where the address may be defined as a street address, intersection address, place name or postal code
RM-ODP
Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing (ISO/IEC 10746). In RM-ODP, Architecture is defined as a set of components, connections, and topologies defined through a series of views: enterprise, information, computation, engineering and technology.
route service
A network-accessible service that determines travel routes and navigation information between two or more points.
RTD
Source: PreANVIL Glossary http://www.anvil.eu.com/find/Glossary-english.htm
Research and Technology Development: a term used in the European IST program.
Glossary: 

Glossary of Terms - D

Definitions: 
Data Catalog Model
Source: The OpenGIS® Abstract Specification Topic 6: The Coverage Type and its Subtypes Version 6. http://www.opengis.org/techno/abstract/00-106.pdf
The general model for representing online data catalogs that pertain to enterprise data stores.
data clearinghouse
Source: ISO 19115
Collection of institutions providing digital data, which can be searched through a single interface using a common metadata standard.
data coordination
Organizations that seek to share GI working to reach consensus on common data models.
data domain
Source: GETIS glossary
Set of feature collections that is commonly used in a specific discipline or application. An example of a data domain is {roads, houses, rivers} or on another abstraction level {transport, buildings}
data infrastructure
Source: GETIS glossary
See SDI
data level
Source: ISO 19101
Stratum within a set of layered levels in which data is recorded that conforms to definitions of types found at the application model level
data model
Source: AGI glossary. http://www.geo.ed.ac.uk/agidict/welcome.html
"An abstraction of the real world which incorporates only those properties thought to be relevant to the application at hand. The data model would normally define specific groups of entities, and their attributes and the relationships between these entities. A data model is independent of a computer system and its associated data structures. A map is one example of an analogue data model."
data quality
Source: AGI glossary. http://www.geo.ed.ac.uk/agidict/welcome.html
"Indications of the degree to which data satisfies stated or implied needs. This includes information about lineage, completeness, currency, logical consistency and accuracy of the data"
data schema
Source: PreANVIL Glossary http://www.anvil.eu.com/find/Glossary-english.htm
Formal description of a data model
data semantics
Source: PreANVIL Glossary http://www.anvil.eu.com/find/Glossary-english.htm
The meaning of data: in the GI sector this includes the identification of related object classes embedded in different abstractions
data services
OSF services that provide access to collections of data in repositories and databases. Resources accessible by Data Services can generally be referenced by a name (identity, address, etc). Given a name, Data Services can then find the resource. Examples include: Feature Access Services (FAS), Coverage Access Services (CAS) and Sensor Collection Service (SCS).
data transfer
Source: OpenGIS Guide
"In the geoprocessing world, this refers to converting geodata from one (usually proprietary) data format to another. The OpenGIS Specification is not a data transfer standard. Instead, it (in most cases) specifies interfaces by which software systems can exchange information about features, geometry, spatial referencing, and geoprocessing operations. It enables remote GIS systems, for example, to behave like extensions of your local computing environment. "
data transfer standard
A (usually vector) data format designed to be a "lowest common denominator" for multiple data formats, to enable data to be used by different GIS systems.
data update cycle
Source: GETIS glossary
Data update interval
dataset series
Source: ISO 19115; ISO 19113; ISO 19114
Collection of datasets sharing the same product specification
datum
Defines the origin, orientation and scale of the coordinate system and ties it to the earth, ensuring that the abstract mathematical concept 'coordinate system' can be applied to the practical problem of describing positions of features on or near the earth's surface by means of coordinates.
DBF
Data Base File - the dBase file format
DBMS
Database management system. DBMS sometimes refers to the software that contains and organizes the data, and sometimes refers to an organizational plan for the use of information within a single project, or within one unit or the whole of an organization.
DCP
Distributed Computing Platform
de facto standard
Source: OpenGIS Guide
"A standard that has been informally adopted, often because a particular vendor was first to market with a product that became widely adopted. MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows are examples. "
de jure standard
Source: OpenGIS Guide
"An official standard created in a formal `juried` process, such as the International Organization for Standards Technical Committee 211 (ISO TC/211), which is working on problems similar to those addressed by the OpenGIS Specification, but at a higher, more abstract level."
DEM
Digital elevation model, a data exchange format developed by the United States Geological Survey for geographical and topographical data.
DEMTS
Digital and Electronic Maps Transfer Standard. Interchange of digital maps. Russian state standard GOST R*50828-95Â
DGN
DesiGN file, the Microstation drawing format
Dictionary Model
Source: The OpenGIS® Abstract Specification Topic 6: The Coverage Type and its Subtypes Version 6. http://www.opengis.org/techno/abstract/00-106.pdf
The general model for representing online dictionaries that pertain to well-known types of classification schemes and dictionaries.
DIGEST
(Digital Geographic Exchange Standard) Standard that supports images and gridded data in alignment with the ISO/IEC 1/SC 24 BIIF standard. DIGEST Annex D, known as the Image Interchange Format, is an encapsulation of the NATO Secondary Imagery Format (NSIF), which allows for the standard exchange of image, graphic and text data.
Digital Cartographic Model
Source: http://www.eurogeographics.org/Projects/GDDD/GDDD/lists/products.htm#52
"Simple digital maps having a 'flat' data structure, e.g. digitized maps. Digital Cartographic Models (DCMs) are suitable for display and plots purposes. In the context of GIS the DCM may be used as background information. The geometric form of the DCM is vector"
Digital Elevation Model
Source: http://www.eurogeographics.org/Projects/GDDD/GDDD/lists/products.htm#52
"The Digital Elevation Model (DEM) only contains elevation data. Normally, the height data are arranged in a matrix. Also, vector based contour lines and spot elevations are considered as DEM. "
Digital Landscape Model
Source: http://www.eurogeographics.org/Projects/GDDD/GDDD/lists/products.htm#52
"A Digital Landscape Model (DLM) is an object orientated topographic database. The data structure facilitates spatial analysis and linkage of geographic objects to external data. The geometric form of the DLM is vector. The DLM often contains explicit or implicit topological information. The objects, their attributes and the relations between the objects are referred to in terms of real world entities. "
digital orthoimages
Orthorectified images produced using photogrammetric techniques to orthorectify scans of aerial photos and paper maps.
digitize
The process of converting information into the digital codes stored and processed by computers. In geographic applications, digitizing usually means tracing map features into a computer using a digitizing tablet, graphics tablet, mouse, or keyboard cursor.
DIPR
See Draft Interoperability Program Report.
Directory Model
The general model for representing online, well-known types of directories (e.g. Yellow Pages).
directory service
A network-accessible service that provides access to an online directory (e.g. Yellow Pages) to find the location of a specific or nearest place, product or service.
discipline
A particular area of study, such as forestry, hydrology, disaster management, etc. Disciplines often show overlaps in their study topics, data domains and application domains
Discussion Paper
A document containing discussion of some technology or specification area prepared by a SIG or WG for release for the public. Discussion Papers are not the official position of the OGC and contain a statement to that effect.
Distributed Computing Environment (DCE)
DCP being developed by the Open Software Foundation (OSF).
Distributed Computing Platform (DCP)
The foundation technology that enables access to and exploitation of physically distributed information and services. Examples include CORBA, COM/OLE, SQL, Java, and Internet services from the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) such as HTTP, SOAP and XML.
diversity
The ability of a system or components of a system to support multiple behaviors, functions, and data types.
DLG
Digital line graph, a form of digital map developed by the United States Geological Survey. DLGs supply users with the digital version of information printed on USGS topographical quadrangle maps.
domain
System context: A class of systems that have similar requirements and capabilities. Application context: The body of knowledge defining the range and scope of an application in terms of elements, rules and behaviors.
Draft Interoperability Program Report (DIPR)
A DIPR is an informational report written by participants from an Interoperability Program Initiative. DIPR documents may be submitted to the OGC TC for review and comment. Depending on the desired outcome, the document type should be either "Information-Only" or "Draft Discussion Paper". The former, obviously, is intended for information only and is not to be considered for public release. The latter, is intended for consideration for public release as a Discussion Paper. A DIPR does not represent the official position of the OGC nor is it an adopted OGC specification.
DTM
Digital terrain model, a method of transforming elevation data into a contoured surface of a three-dimensional display.
DXF
"Drawing eXchange Format", an AutoCad export file. Drawing interchange format, a file exchange format developed by Autodesk Inc. for its AutoCAD drafting software. DXF files are ASCII records of all objects in a drawing file. DXF is used by GIS systems for exchanging map files.
dynamic segmentation
Points along a line that vary in value, e.g. pavement thickness along a road centerline.
Glossary: 

Glossary of Terms - V

Definitions: 
validation
The process of testing an application or system to ensure that it conforms to a specification.
vector
A representation of the spatial extent of geographic features using geometric elements (such as point, curve, and surface) in a coordinate space.
vector displays and databases
Databases that build all geographic features from point, that is, from discrete X-Y locations. Lines are constructed from strings of points, and polygons (regions) are built from lines which close.
vector methods
In geoprocessing, methods of representing geographic features from points, lines, and polygons, as opposed to raster techniques which record geographic features within a matrix of grid cells. The choice between vector and raster GIS has much to do with the application being considered since both methods have strengths and weaknesses. Many current GIS permit transformation between vector and raster input and output.
view
SQL `Select`, Statement, used to provide temporary information about a given table(s) of a Database Management System without actually creating a subset or new table.
viewpoint
Form of abstraction achieved using a selected set of architectural concepts and structuring rules, in order to focus on particular concerns within a system. ISO-10746-2 In an RM-ODP based description of a multi-tier, multi-network architecture, the Enterprise, Information, and Computation viewpoints describe a system in terms of its purposes, its content, and its functions.
virtual reality (VR)
Refers generally to interactive multimedia environments that present users with a sensory experience similar in some ways to our experience of the real world.
VPF
Vector Product Format. A published vector format used by the US Department of Defense.
Glossary: 

Glossary of Terms - O

Definitions: 
object
Data and processing functions packaged into a small, discrete, interoperable module. Also, in a specific OGC context, an XML document element of a type derived from AbstractGMLType
Object Oriented (OO)
Software in which data and processing functions are packaged into small, discrete, interoperable modules, offering advantages such as portability and easy maintainability.
object technology
Software scheme in which data and processing functions are packaged into small, discrete, interoperable modules, offering advantages such as portability and easy maintainability.
observation domain model
The definition of a specific observation type in accordance with the general observation model.
Observation Model
The general model for representing observations of earth phenomena; general observation model for describing well-known observations.
OGC
Source: PreANVIL Glossary http://www.anvil.eu.com/find/Glossary-english.htm
Open GIS Consortium, Inc. http://www.opengis.org
OGC Interoperability Program
The OGC Interoperability Program provides an industry consensus process to develop, test, demonstrate, and promote the use of standard interfaces and protocols that enable interoperable geoprocessing. The Interoperability Program organizes and manages Interoperability Initiatives, including Testbeds, Pilot Projects, Planning Studies, Insertion Projects, and Feasibility Studies. Technical documents, training materials, test suites, reference implementations and other resources developed in these initiatives become available for use by members and the public on the OGCNetwork.
OGC Network
An OGC web site (http://www.ogcnetwork.org/ ) that provides a Directory of OGC services, fora, mail lists, specifications, discussion papers, Collaborative Test Environment services, and other OGC-related resources.
OGC Specification Program
In the OGC Specification Program, the OGC Technical Committee reviews specifications for interfaces and encodings developed either in the Interoperability Program by groups of members, or through an internal proposals process. The Technical Committee and Planning Committee then approve these as OpenGIS® Specifications for release to the public.
OGC Technical Baseline
See Technical Baseline.
OGC Technical Committee
The OGC Technical Committee is the primary operational unit of the OpenGIS specification development and adoption process. It is comprised of the technical representatives of all OGC member organizations and is charged with creating OpenGIS Specifications and maintaining the OGC Abstract Specification. The Technical Committee does the bulk of its work through its Working Groups (WGs).
OGCE
Source: PreANVIL Glossary http://www.anvil.eu.com/find/Glossary-english.htm
Open GIS Consortium (Europe) Limited: a business supporting OGC in Europe. http://www.opengis.co.uk
OLE/COM
Object Linking and Embedding/Common Object Model. A DCP developed by Microsoft.
online
A state (referring to equipment such as computers, plotters, printers, and digitizers) of being turned on and actively communicating with a computer or computer network.
open interface
An interface that implements a standard specification developed in an open consensus process. (See interface.)
Open Location Services
Open Location Services (OpenLS) is a multi-phase project which is focused on defining and building the "core" Location Based Services (LBS) standards and information framework for LBS application services in close coordination with other related industry standards groups.
open platform
In the past, the term platform denoted any specific hardware and operating system combination, such as the Windows/Intel platform. It now used more generally describes an application programming interface (API) or set of APIs that provide access to computing power, database, GIS or other services hidden "underneath" those APIs. The acronym "API" is generally giving way to "interface" in programmer-speak. No single vendor provides an open platform unless all the exposed interfaces are open interfaces as defined above. An open platform needs to be like the IT industry`s Web Services platform, which is still, as of August, 2003, largely unencumbered by proprietary restrictions and is the product of a non-exclusive consensus process.
open source
It is important not to confuse "open source" with "open standards." They are entirely different. The special licenses that govern use and sale of such software exist not to ensure profits to the software`s owner, but to ensure that the software`s source code remains in the public domain (free to all), though companies are allowed to sell products that include some or all of the source code. Open source software is usually developed not by single company but by a distributed team of developers, typically an informal ad hoc group of volunteers.
open specification
A specification that promotes interoperability through its public availability to developers, who use it to develop software or hardware compatible with the common resource described in the specification. Open specifications are generally consistent with related standards and are updated to conform with new standards and new technologies. They may be developed and maintained, as in the case of OpenGIS Specifications, by a public open consensus process.
open standards
An "open standard" is one that: 1. Is created in an open, international, participatory industry process 2. Is freely distributed and openly accessible 3. Does not discriminate against persons or groups 5. Ensures that the specification and the license must be technology neutral: Its use must not be predicated on any proprietary technology or style of interface.
open system
Open systems are systems that interoperate through open interfaces, protocols etc. developed and maintained in an inclusive, open consensus process. Open systems promote application portability, scalability, interoperability, diversity, manageability, extensibility, compatibility with legacy components, and user portability.
open system environment
A computer environment specified by a set of standards and profiles for interfaces, services, and formats for an open system.
OpenGIS Abstract Specification
A document that captures the OGC member consensus on a computing technology independent specification for interfaces, protocols or schemas for interoperable geoprocessing. The Abstract Specification is that part of the OpenGIS Specification created by the OGC Technical Committee to provide a high level description of the functionality to be provided in OpenGIS Implementation Specifications.
OpenGIS Implementation Specification
A document containing a computing platform dependent specification for application program interfaces, protocols etc. OpenGIS Implementation Specifications contain detailed software specifications for implementing standard interfaces, protocols etc. on particular distributed computing platforms such as the Web, SQL, OLE/COM and CORBA.
OpenGIS Reference Model (ORM)
The ORM is a document, part of the OGC Technical Baseline, that provides an overall conceptual framework for building geospatial processing into distributed systems in an incremental and interoperable manner.
OpenGIS Specification
An open software standard developed and adopted in OGC`s open consensus process that enables interoperable geoprocessing, which includes: real-time data sharing and process execution between GIS systems from different vendors; interoperation between dissimilar types of geoprocessing systems (GIS, Earth imaging, surveying and mapping, navigation, etc.); and efficient discovery of and access to remote geodata and geoprocessing resources in distributed computing environments.
OpenGIS, Open GIS and open GIS
OGC registered the trademark "Open GIS" and OpenGIS" in countries around the world to assert the importance of open standards in geoprocessing and to protect these standards with a legal brand. The phrase "open GIS" (with a small "o") is also a trademark of OGC, with the same meaning as "Open GIS," though "open GIS" is not a registered trademark.
OpenLS
See Open Location Services.
OpenLS Core Services
The basic services that comprise the open service platform (GeoMobility Server) defined under OpenLS.
operation
A single step performed by a computer in the execution of a program, or, in the context of object-oriented programming: Specification of an interaction that can be requested from an object to effect behavior. ISO 19119
ORM
OpenGIS Reference Model
orthophoto map
Source: http://www.eurogeographics.org/Projects/GDDD/GDDD/lists/products.htm#52
Digital or digitized aerial photographs in which the pixels are geometrically rectified and given geographical references. The data structure is raster. An orthophoto map may include details of topography and names.
orthorectification
Use of photogrammetric techniques to adjust and correct distortions in mages.
OWS
OGC Web Services.
OWS Service Framework
(OSF) Identifies services, interfaces and exchange protocols that can be utilized by any application. OpenGIS Services are implementations of services that conform to OpenGIS Implementation Specifications. Compliant applications, called OpenGIS Applications, can then "plug into" the framework to join the operational environment.
Glossary: 

Glossary of Terms - H

Definitions: 
handle
An index entry or unique name in software that identifies a catalog entry or other resource so that it can be found and utilized by another software facility.
harmonization
With respect to standards: activities undertaken by communities of experts to align standards. For example, to define common metadata and application schema from legacy sources, harmonization will consider: -- Architecture - multiple viewpoints that capture high level requirements, use cases, scenarios, information flows and computational flows. -- Data modelling - definition and UML encoding of feature type, attribute type, data type, coding, dependency mapping -- Schema modelling - UML mapping and encoding to GML, mapping of profiles to one another, and delineation to service types -- Iteration and development - build a little, see if it works, build more- -- Delivery to standards organizations for approval.
hierarchical database
A database that stores related information in terms of pre-defined categorical relationships in a `tree-like` fashion. Information is traced from a major group, to a subgroup, and to further subgroups. Much like tracing a family tree, data can be traced through parents along paths through the hierarchy. Users must keep track of the hierarchical structure in order to make use of the data. The relational database provides an alternative means of organizing datasets.
http
Hypertext Transfer Protocol, the World Wide Web protocol for moving hypertext (HTML) files across the Internet. OGC has defined a suite of Web Service interfaces that have explicit bindings for HTTP. Specifically, there are two HTTP bindings for invoking operations of a service (i.e., Sending a message): GET and POST.
human technology environment
The environment within which people interact with information technology, typically a mouse and windowing system.
human technology interface (HTI)
The interface across which people interact with information technology. The service provided through this interface is access to the information infrastructure and to other people.
hydrography
The charting and description of bodies of water.
Glossary: 

Glossary of Terms - A

Definitions: 
Abstract Data Type
The basic information construct used by the GeoMobility Server and associated Core Services. Consists of well-known data types and structures for location information. Defined as application schemas that are encoded in XML for Location Services (XLS).
accuracy
Source: OpenGIS Guide
The degree to which information on a map or in a digital database matches true or accepted values. Accuracy pertains to the quality of data and the number of errors contained in a dataset or map. In discussing a GIS database, it is possible to consider horizontal and vertical accuracy with respect to geographic position, as well as attribute, conceptual, and logical accuracy. The effect of inaccuracy and error on a GIS solution is the subject of sensitivity analysis. Accuracy, or error, is distinguished from precision, which concerns the level of measurement or detail of data in a database.
agent
Source: OpenGIS Guide
A kind of intermediary service which acts on behalf of another service (service provider or requester) according to rules established upon its invocation. Also known as an `intelligent agent.`
Annual Technical Baseline Target
The Annual Technical Baseline Target is the subset of the elements of the Technical Plan that are scheduled to be completed within any given calendar year.
ANSI
An abbreviation for American National Standards Institute. ANSI standards have been established for many elements of computer systems to aid research and development. The existence of standards allows designers to develop general solutions to common problems.
applet
A small application, with limited functionality, designed to operate in a componentware and/or middleware environment. Large, multifunctional, `monolithic` applications can be, and in the future often will be, broken into single-function applets that interoperate with other applets, and that can be assembled, perhaps only temporarily, into a user`s work environment. Java applets, for example, are typically downloaded via the Internet into your computer`s program memory, where they accomplish their task (such as `let the user zoom on this geodata`) and then `evaporate`.
application
Source: OpenGIS Guide
The use of capabilities, including hardware, software and data, provided by an information system specific to the satisfaction of a set of user requirements. See Geographic Application and Geoprocessing Application.
application assembly
Assemble single application from components
application developer
Source: OpenGIS Guide
A software programmer who creates applications, usually by integrating a variety of pre-existing elements such as application programming interfaces and software and hardware platforms.
application domain models
Application-oriented models that characterize information and service resources within a domain. They are often based upon a General Model and must always be consistent with the Abstract Model. The two subclasses are: Data Domain Models and Process Domain Models.
application integration
Integrate multiple applications to support a cross function business process
application platform
Source: OpenGIS Guide
The collection of hardware and software components that provide the infrastructure services used by application programs. APIs make the specific characteristics of the platform transparent and accessible to the application.
application profile
Source:  ISO 19101, ISO 19106
A set of one or more base standards and - where applicable - the identification of chosen clauses, classes, subsets, options and parameters of those base standards that are necessary for accomplishing a particular function.
Application Programming Interface (API)
An interface definition that permits invoking services from application programs without knowing details of their internal implementation.

Application Programming Interface (API)
An interface definition that permits invoking services from application programs without knowing details of their internal implementation.
application schema
A set of conceptual schema for data required by one or more applications. An application schema contains selected parts of the base schemas presented in the ORM Information Viewpoint. Designers of application schemas may extend or restrict the types defined in the base schemas to define appropriate types for an application domain. Application schemas are information models for a specific information community.
application services
OWS Services operating on user devices or servers that have network connectivity. Users use Application Services to access Registry, Portrayal, Processing and Data Services. Application Services commonly, but not necessarily, provide user-oriented displays of geospatial content and support user interaction at the user terminal.
application software
Source: OpenGIS Guide
The computing elements supporting users` particular needs. Frequently includes data, documentation, and training, as well as programs.
architectural framework
Source: OpenGIS Guide
Identifies key interfaces and services, and provides a context for identifying and resolving policy, management and strategic technical issues. Constrains implementation by focusing on interfaces, but does not dictate design or specific technical solutions.
architecture
An abstract technical description of a system or collection of systems. Modern software architectures employ interoperability interfaces to enable enterprises and whole industries to establish coherent, flexible, integrated information flows that can be implemented with heterogeneous but intercommunicating software systems. The OpenGIS Specification defines the interoperability interfaces that make it possible to include geographic information in these information flows. Conceptually based, architecture does not contain the level of detail needed for construction.
area of interest
A user defined area (represented by a bounding box, circle or polygon). Often used as a filter in a query.
ASCII
Source: OpenGIS Guide
An abbreviation for American Standard Code for Information Interchange. The ASCII format provides computer systems with a common language for exchanging information. Although most GIS software system make use of proprietary binary codes, almost all systems have import-export capabilities for translating between ASCII and binary formats.
asynchronous
Calling application does not require immediate response to request before proceeding
attribute data
Source: OpenGIS Guide
Descriptive information about features or elements of a database. For a database feature like census tract, attributes might include many demographic facts including total population, average income, and age. In statistical parlance, an attribute is a `variable,` whereas the database feature represents an `observation` of the variable.
Glossary: 

Glossary of Terms - S

Definitions: 
SAIF
Spatial Archive and Interchange FormatÂ
scalability
The ability to change the component configuration of a system to fit desired application contexts.
scanned map
Source: http://www.eurogeographics.org/Projects/GDDD/GDDD/lists/products.htm#52
Analogue maps digitized by scanning. The data structure of scanned maps is raster.
schema
A structured framework. A metadata schema specifies the order and types and labels of information elements describing a geodata set.
SCOTS
Standards based commercial off-the-shelf software. ("Off the shelf" means that the product is commercially available, without any need for customization.)
SDI (GDI)
Source: PreANVIL Glossary http://www.anvil.eu.com/find/Glossary-english.htm
"(Geo)Spatial Data Infrastructure: a comprehensive package of consensus and initiatives required to enable complete provision of data, access and privacy within the territory of the designated infrastructure."
SDO
Source: PreANVIL Glossary http://www.anvil.eu.com/find/Glossary-english.htm
Standards Development Organization: any international organization that develops standards for the whole community. Includes de jure SDOs and standards consortia.
SDTS
Spatial Data Transfer Standard. A standard vector format developed by the US Federal Geographic Data Committee.
semantic translator
A collection of mappings between a target Information Community`s data model and a source Information Community`s data model, generally held and maintained by the target Information Community, though both Information Communities may participate in configuring it. Usually expressed in terms of metadata, features, attributes and rules that permit information integration to occur when a feature collection is imported to the target Information Community from a source Information Community.
Sensor Collection Service (SCS)
Provides a web-enabled interface to a sensor, collection of sensors or sensor proxy. The Sensor Collection Service provides a standard interface for clients to collect and access sensor observations and manipulate them in different ways. SCS instances are collection points on the web for disparate types and instances of sensors. SCS instances deliver sensor observation values (e.g., temperature, ppm, chemical type) in response to queries form HTTP clients.
sensor domain model
The definition of a specific sensor type in accordance with the general sensor model.
Sensor Model Language
(SML) OGC`s XML-based language for describing and encoding sensors (in situ, satellite and airborne).
sensor web
A networked collection of sensors that can be remotely read and perhaps also controlled.
Sensor Web Enablement
OGC`s initiative to develop standards that support linking of environmental sensors to the World Wide Web. A Sensor Collection Service (SCS) server gathers readings from in-situ environmental sensors via a private network (cellular, microwave, etc.), and provides summaries or interpretations of those readings to SCS clients over the Web.
service
A computation performed by a software entity on one side of an interface in response to a request made by a software entity on the other side of the interface. A collection of operations, accessible through an interface, that allows a user to evoke a behavior of value to the user. ISO - 19119
service chain
A sequence of services where, for each adjacent pair of services, occurrence of the first action is necessary for the occurrence of the second action ISO 19119.
service interface
Source: ISO 19101
Shared boundary between an automated system or human being and another automated system or human being
service metadata
The most basic operation all OGC services must provide is the ability to describe themselves. This "Get Capabilities" operation, yielding a capabilities document, is common to all OWS1 services. An XML vocabulary comprised of several parts for describing different aspects of a service. The first unit describes the service interface in sufficient detail so that an automated process can read the description and invoke an operation that the service advertises. A second unit describes the data content of the service (or the data it operates on) in a way that enables service requestors to dynamically compose requests for service.
Service Model
The general model for online services.
service request
A request by a client of an operation from a service.
SHAPE
An ESRI published spatial data format.
SIF
Standard interchange format. SIF is a format which allows data to be transferred among dissimilar computer systems. SQL stands for Structured Query Language, a relational database.
Simple Feature Model
The general, descriptive model for how earth features may be represented as vector objects (i.e., points, lines and polygons).
SME
Source: PreANVIL Glossary http://www.anvil.eu.com/find/Glossary-english.htm
Small or Medium Sized Enterprise (1-500 employed persons)
SOAP
Source: http://www.softwareag.com/xml/about/glossary.htm
"Simple Object Access Protocol, a method invented by Microsoft to use RPC over the internet via HTTP calls. SOAP is now published as an W3C Note and implemented, among others, as part of the Apache XML Project." SOAP is a protocol specification that defines a uniform way of passing XML-encoded data. It also defines a way to perform remote procedure calls (RPCs) using HTTP as the underlying communication protocol. Development of SOAP is in the care of the W3C`s XML Protocols Working Group.
spatial reference system
Source: The OpenGIS® Abstract Specification Topic 2: "Spatial Referencing by Coordinates" http://www.opengis.org/techno/abstract/02-102.pdf
As defined in the OpenGIS Abstract Specification Topic 2 and ISO 19111. Position on or near the Earth's surface can be described by spatial reference systems. These are of two basic types: those using coordinates; and those based on geographic identifiers (for example postal addresses, administrative areas). Spatial referencing by geographic identifiers is defined in ISO 19112, Geographic information - "Spatial referencing by geographic identifiers." The subject matter of The OpenGIS® Abstract Specification Topic 2: "Spatial Referencing by Coordinates" is spatial referencing by coordinates.
Spatial Web
The Spatial Web is the spatially enabled World Wide Web. It is also the set of Web-resident open geospatial resources -- data, schemas and services - that enable people to publish, find and use Web-resident geospatial information off all kinds.
specification
A document written by a consortium, vendor, or user that specifies a technological area with a well-defined scope, primarily for use by developers as a guide to implementation. A specification is not necessarily a formal standard.
Specification Program
The OGC Specification Program provides an industry consensus process to plan, review and officially adopt OpenGIS Specifications for interfaces and protocols that enable interoperable geoprocessing services, data, and applications. The OGC bodies involved in the Specification Program are the Technical Committee, Planning Committee, and Strategic Member Advisory Committee.
SQL
Source: http://www.softwareag.com/xml/about/glossary.htm
Structured Query Language. "SQL is a standard interactive and programming language for getting information from and updating a database. Although SQL is both an ANSI and an ISO standard, many database products support SQL with proprietary extensions to the standard language"
standard
A document that specifies a technological area with a well-defined scope, usually by a formal standardization body and process.
State Plane Coordinate System (SPC)
A locational reference system developed in the U.S. in the 1930s which provides positional descriptions accurate to 1 foot in 10,000. The SPC system divides the United States into 125 zones (5 cover Texas) and employs both Lambert conformal and Transverse Mercator projections (depending upon a state`s size and shape). Within any given SPC zone, X-Y coordinates are given in eastings and northings. A central meridian passes each zone and is given a false easting of 2 million feet. A false northing of 0 feet is established below the southern limit of each zone.
stove pipe or stove piped
Colloquial term describing systems that are 'islands of automation,' that do not interoperate with other systems. Data in at the bottom, data out at the top, no sharing of data or services laterally.
Strategic Member Advisory Committee (SMAC)
The SMAC is granted authority to operate by the OGC by-laws. The SMAC has as a primary responsibility to recommend areas of strategic opportunity for Consortium operations and to recommend resource strategies in support of Consortium programs to the Board of Directors, Consortium staff and the Membership.
structured code
Refers to software designed such that a small central program makes calls to subroutines organized in external libraries: as opposed to the `spaghetti` code of large monolithic programs with integral functions and subroutines. This approach enables libraries called application programming interfaces (APIs) to provide a standard set of `hooks` by which a program can cooperate with other programs.
Style
Styles provide the mapping from feature types and feature properties and constraints to parameterized symbols used in drawing maps
Styled Layer Descriptors (SLD)
A map-styling language for producing georeferenced maps with user-defined styling
stylesheet
Source: http://www.softwareag.com/xml/about/glossary.htm
"A program written in a stylesheet language for converting and/or presenting HTML, SGML, or XML documents. Stylesheet languages are e.g. CSS for HTML (and CSS2 for XML too), XSL for XML and FOSI and DSSSL for both SGML and XML."
sub-assembly
Collection of components. E.g. Customer Management contains many software components including Party, Location, Post Code look-up, and assign new ID number.
surface
2-deminsional geometric primitive, locally representing a continuous image of a region of a plane. (see OGC Abstract Specification (Topic 1) clause 6.3.17)
Surface Configuration Model
Defines the geometric characteristics of the Earth`s surface, exclusive of features which fall upon the surface; defined in terms of elevation, shape, roughness, slope, and aspect, with the later properties possibly derived from elevation.
SVG
"Scalable Vector Graphics, a language for describing two-dimensional vector and mixed vector/raster graphics in XML. SVG graphic types include text and XSLT can transform XML documents into SVG output. Thus SVG is a possible replacement for XSL FO. SVG tools are provided by IBM, CSIRO and Adobe." SVG is a standard application programming interface (API) for displaying graphics encoded in XML. SVG is used for presentation of GML data.
symbol
Symbols are bundles of predefined graphical parameters and predefined fixed graphic "images".
symbology
Methodology for describing symbols and mapping of the schema to an application schema. Portrayal requires symbology.
synchronous
Calling application requires response to request before proceeding.
System Internal Interface (SII)
An interface between components within an application platform.
Glossary: 

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