Geospatial User Feedback SWG
Maso Pau, Joan (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (CREAF))
Bastin, Lucy (Aston University)
Thum, Simon (Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft)
The Geospatial User Feedback SWG was established with the following proposed activities:
1. Review the GeoViQua User Feedback Model (UFM; sometimes referred as Consumer Quality Model or User Quality Model) UML and XML schema that is currently included in the version 4 of the GeoViQua General Quality model (http://schemas.geoviqua.org/GVQ/4.0/) and determine the best way to bring it into the OGC process.
2. Reach out to experts in online collaboration (e.g. on the topic of wikis) and scientific peer review processes to harvest existing research and experiences.
3. Refine which feedback items are more useful for users, producers and distributors, and discern what concepts can be easily understood by users and what others are less attractive as feedback items due to their descriptive and technical complexity
4. Investigate how to best incorporate the UFM into the OGC standards framework (and the ISO 19115 Metadata model) including identifying places where there may be common elements in existing standards. Identify required best practices for data owner to allow users to comment on the metadata accessible through OGC data services such as WFS, WCS, and SOS.
5. Develop a UFM standard.
6. Assist the current implementations of the GeoViQua Quality model in the migration to the final agreed UFM standard.
7. Investigate the need for a revision of the OGC abstract model to include the User Feedback concept for Geospatial information.
8. Consider the standardization of a User Feedback query API or service interface and its relation to the CSW standards and impact on the GEO label concept.
9. Interact with other DWGs about challenges of globally identifying datasets and multilingual metadata.
10. Support upcoming research projects and implementers in taking up the GeoViQua UFM and the existing software implementations.
The work in the GeoViQua User Feedback Model was financed by the EC (European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2010-2013) under grant agreement no. 265178) and conducted by several OGC members (such as: UAB-CREAF, Aston University, Fraunhofer Institute, 52°North, ESA and CNR) . OGCE is also partner of GeoViQua project. GeoViQua helped to finance provenance and quality activities in OWS-9.
During the GeoViQua project several implementations of the User Feedback Model were developed by S&T Corp. (User feedback API and GUI interface for User Feedback creation and database), CNR (Discovery and Access Broker integration and another User Feedback creation database), ESA and 52°North (GEOSS Portal integration, XMLBeans for GeoViQua Quality Model) and Aston University (GEO label API, Feedback Model Encoding Schema).
1.1 Conceptual Model and encodings
The user feedback has been identified by GeoViQua interviews as one of the quality components that users appreciate. It is only a small feature in the ISO 19115 Model called MD_Usage with only 4 parameters. One of the problems to solve is gaining consensus on a user feedback model that is simple enough for user to understand, easy enough to implement for wide adoption, and powerful enough to allow experts to carefully report. Existing user feedback models are found to be too simplistic and they lack the geospatial component. The GeoViQua User Feedback Model is a starting point for this discussion.
Most OGC standards are based on underlying conceptual models. These may either exist as Abstract Specifications or as part of the standards themselves. As far as we know, there is no mention to the user feedback concept in the OGC Abstract specification and we can consider trying to include it or simply to create an abstract representation of the User feedback Model in UML. Then there is a need for an encoding. GeoViQua proposes an XML encoding, which can be easily combined with the ISO 19139 metadata XML encoding, but also acknowledges requirements from mainstream IT and the increasingly app-centric development to support encodings such as JSON.
So the first step of the group is to create a conceptual model. This will serve the purposes of creating encodings.
Because the OGC standard for modeling concepts is the Unified Modeling Language (UML), it is proposed that the Geospatial User Feedback model is developed by this SWG and is documented using UML.
1.2 User feedback catalogue
After the encoding is formalized, there is a need for being able to catalogue (create, read, update, delete) the Geospatial User Feedback. In GeoViQua a specific User Feedback RESTful API was designed and developed for easy deployment of a solution and a solution was published as open source software on GitHub. In OGC, the common way to do it seems to be as a CSW profile. This SWG will consider the possibility of creating such a profile and to also adopt OWS common in the process.
We have to take into consideration the different lifetimes of producer metadata (generated before or during a product release) and consumer user feedback (generated after the dataset publication). In dead, a catalogue of user feedback case is a bit different of a normal metadata catalogue because the first requires frequent updates coming from small contributions by many users. Also, it seems important that the catalogue is able to return summary statistics from the row feedback such as average ratings, avoiding the need to do this on client side. Also in a user feedback database security controls: user authentication and user moderation is paramount.
For that reason, this SWG will consider to start the work on catalogues when the Geospatial User Feedback model is found mature enough.
The purpose of the Geospatial User Feedback SWG is to develop User Feedback standards.
The SWG will ensure that all standards are consistent with the OGC standards baseline and business plan.
This SWG is a persistent SWG to enable it to work on:
1) a conceptual model for Geospatial User Feedback,
2) a catalogue profile for Geospatial User Feedback,
3) subsequent potential user feedback and development implementation-specific standards proposed by the Data Quality DWG or the Metadata DWG.
User feedback has been identified by GeoViQua interviewees as one of the quality components that GEOSS users appreciate during the project’s requirements gathering phase. Quality information is often too abstract and difficult to understand alone and users like to complement this information with how the dataset has to learn from other people’s experiences, e.g. difficulties found. With the explosion of geospatial digital data and particularly Earth observation data, there is a need for ranking and comparing mechanisms. This concurs with a continuing move towards a social web, user reviews as a generally accepted component of online shopping, and mainstream developments such as “social search”. Including user-generated metadata into geospatial data services has the potential to improve the available metadata, increase usability of datasets, extend the appropriate usage/uptake/adoption of published datasets, give data producers a chance to alter the data collection or publishing methods, and ultimately improve the quality of the data as well as the quality of the analysis based on a dataset.
Currently only a small member in the ISO 19115 Model called MD_Usage allows for reporting uses of the data but this approach is quite simplistic. The GEO community is composed by a big Earth Observation community interested in several thematic areas (Societal Benefit Areas). GEO’s current Members include 89 countries, the European Commission and 77 Participating Organizations.
By OGC adopting a Geospatial User Feedback Model and Catalogue profile, the user community will be assured of a formal process for maintaining, improving, documenting and in fact, formalizing the standard. This will lead to a greater confidence in the use of the standard and new opportunities for integration with other related OGC standards.
After the validation of the requirements for user feedback in the Quality.DWG and in the Metadata.DWG, this SWG can start developing the model, the encoding and the catalogue services for Geospatial User Feedback.
The scope of work of this Geospatial User Feedback SWG shall include the following activities:
1) Develop a conceptual model for Geospatial User Feedback using UML class diagrams.
2) Develop Geospatial User Feedback encodings based on the conceptual model. One encoding required is XML.
3) Develop a catalogue for Geospatial User Feedback (possibly a CSW profile).
Future work of the SWG will be to consider the revision of the OGC abstract specification and other connections with other standards.
The Geospatial User Feedback SWG will work closely with the GeoViQua team and ensure harmony with other Feedback systems in the web.
4.1 What is Out of Scope?
It is out of the scope of this group:
· The work on metadata covered in ISO 19115 and in ISO 19139
· The development of a new version of CSW.
· The definition of quality indicators and provenance metadata.
· Collaborative editing of a metadata document (document history, changelogs, wikis).
4.2 Specific Contribution of Existing Work as a Starting Point
The work in the GeoViQua User Feedback Model was financed by the EC (European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2010-2013) under grant agreement no. 265178) and conducted by several OGC members (such as: UAB-CREAF, Aston University, Fraunhofer Institute, 52°North, ESA and CNR) . OGCE is also partner of GeoViQua project.
GeoViQua can bring a UML and XML schema that is currently included in the version 4 of the GeoViQua General Quality model (http://schemas.geoviqua.org/GVQ/4.0/). The User Feedback API has been also formalized (http://geoviqua.stcorp.nl/home.html). The feedback service and client is in a GitHub repository (https://github.com/mvdbroek/geo-userfeedback). They can be used as a starting point.
During the GeoViQua project several implementations of the User Feedback Model were developed by S&T Corp. (User feedback API and GUI interface for User Feedback creation and database), CNR (Discovery and Access Broker integration and another User Feedback creation database), ESA and 52°North (GEOSS Portal integration, XMLBeans for GVQ Quality Model) and Aston University (GEO label API, Feedback Model Encoding Schema). Some of these implementations were integrated in a GeoViQua GEOSS portal mirror as a demonstration exercise that is now being evaluated by the GEOSS boards.
4.3 Determination of SWG Completion
The Geospatial User Feedback SWG will continue the work necessary to develop each candidate Geospatial User Feedback standard until it has been approved by the OGC Technical and Planning Committees as Adopted OGC standards.
As a persistent SWG, the voting members will have to vote to dissolve the SWG.
The specific deliverables of this Geospatial User Feedback SWG shall include:
1) A conceptual model for Geospatial User Feedback using UML class diagrams.
a. Based on the initial work of GeoViQua and set of requirements but incorporating requirements coming from Quality DWG and Metadata DWG.
b. Opportunities for improvement discovered during this process shall also be documented.
c. An attempt shall be made to partition the schema content into logical UML packages, including documentation of package dependencies.
d. Relevant terms and definitions should also be documented in accordance with OGC convention.
2) Geospatial User Feedback encodings based on the conceptual model.
a. It shall be consistent with the conceptual model.
b. Develop an XML encoding that can be easily used together with ISO 19139.
c. Based on the initial work of GeoViQua
3) A CSW profile for Geospatial User Feedback
a. Based on CSW version 2.0.2
b. Based on the User Feedback conceptual model and XML encoding
4) Concept for OpenSearch integration and extension to facilitate user feedback discovery.
5) Evaluation report on best practices for integration of feedback into OGC specifications.
The timetable for this work will vary greatly depending on the number of candidate standards proposed, actions of the Quality DWG and Metadata DWG. However, the first task listed is an immediate, crucial effort, which will start immediately.
R RAND-Royalty Free. RAND for fee
Those involved in metadata catalogues and discovery portals (generic or thematic) that are interested in providing better relevant results and comparison capabilities based on user feedback.
This is not meant as a limiting statement but instead is intended to provide guidance to interested potential participants as to whether they wish to participate in this SWG.
a. Similar or Applicable Standards Work (OGC and Elsewhere).
The following standards and projects may be relevant to the SWG's planned work:
- ISO 19115 and 19139
- OGC Abstract Specification Topic 11: Metadata
- OGC Catalogue Service for the Web
· microformats hReview and hReview-aggregate draft specifications (http://microformats.org/wiki/hReview)
The SWG intends to seek and if possible maintain liaison with each of the organizations maintaining the above works.
b. Details of the First Meeting
The first meeting of the SWG will be held by telephone conference call as soon as the SWG charter has been accepted. Call-in information will be provided to the SWG's e-mail list and on the portal calendar in advance of the meeting
c. Projected On-going Meeting Schedule
The work of the SWG will be carried out primarily by email and conference calls, possibly every two weeks, with face-to-face meetings at OGC TC meetings.
d. Supporters of the Proposal
The following people support this proposal and are committed to the Charter and projected meeting schedule. These members are known as SWG Founding or Charter members. Once the SWG is officially activated, these members have immediately “opted-into” the SWG and have voting rights from the first day the SWG is officially formed.
European Space Agency
CNR Institute for Atmospheric Pollution Research
Foundation for Earth Science
Dorothea B DeHart
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
Joan Masó of UAB-CREAF Spain, Simon Thum of the Fraunhofer Institute and Lucy Bastin of Aston University will act as initial conveners of this Geospatial User Feedback SWG.