1. Current Status of ARML 2.0

The latest version of ARML 2.0 specification can be found here:

2. Current ARML 2.0 Implementations

ARML 2.0 is used in the live versions of the 3 leading Augmented Reality Browsers (Junaio, Layar and Wikitude), where it is used to make the AR Browsers interoperable. The interoperability between the AR Browsers using ARML 2.0 was successfully demonstrated in live use at the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona. More information on this event can be found here:

ARML 2.0 is also used as main input format for Seoul-based SK Telecom's T-AR Mobile Augmented Reality Platform. More information can be found here:

3. ARML 2.0 Standards Working Group

ARML (Augmented Reality Markup Language) 1.0 is a descriptive, XML based data format, specifically targeted for mobile Augmented Reality (AR) applications. ARML focuses on mapping georeferenced Points of Interest (POIs) and their metadata, as well as mapping data for the POI content providers publishing the POIs to the AR application. ARML was defined in late 2009 by the creators of the Wikitude World Browser to enable developers to create content for Augmented Reality Browsers. ARML combines concepts and functionality typically shared by AR Browser, reuses concepts defined in OGC's KML (Keyhole Markup Language) standard and is already used by hundreds of AR content developers around the world.

ARML 1.0 is fairly restrictive and focuses on functionality Wikitude required back in 2009. Thus, ARML 2.0, while still using ideas coming from ARML 1.0, is targeted to be a complete redesign of the 1.0 format, taking the evolution of the AR industry, as well as other concepts and ideas into account. It is not specifically required to build on top of the proposed ARML 1.0 format. ARML 2.0 will focus on the following topics:
  • KML, ARML 1.0 and other comparable data formats are purely descriptive formats. ARML 2.0 will also allow dynamic parts to modify the properties defined in the descriptive part.
  • Define a set of events a developer can react to and execute custom functionality on occurrence of such events.
  • Extend the rather basic POI presentation options (visual representation) to a more sophisticated visualizations like 3D objects, lines and polygons etc. Most likely, the geometry model of KML will be reused to represent POI geometries.
  • Conceptional, it will provide connecting ports to other widely used AR tracking methods (mainly visual tracking, but also audio tracking etc.). However, standardize tracking is not part of ARML 2.0 as such.
The ultimate goal of ARML 2.0 is to provide an extensible standard and framework for AR applications to serve the AR use cases currently used or developed. With AR, many different standards and computational areas developed in different working groups come together. ARML 2.0 needs to be flexible enough to tie into other standards without actually having to adopt them, thus creating an AR-specific standard with connecting points to other widely used and AR-relevant standards.

4. Purpose of this Standards Working Group

The purpose of the SWG is to progress ARML 2.0 to the state of an adopted OGC standard. This goal will be achieved by regular meetings of the members of the SWG. Support is expected from the (public) International AR Standards Group, comprising various AR experts and AR stakeholders, as well as the W3C AR Community Group and the POI Working Group. During a public comment period, comments received will be processed to allow public opinions and experiences influence the
SWG and to ensure that the standard is consistent with the OGC Standards Baseline and Business Plan.

4.1 What is out of scope?

AR comprises diverse scientific and computational fields, all having to work together to make AR possible. However, the ARML 2.0 SWG will only deal with AR-specific topics or topics which are highly relevant for representing information in an “AR-way”.

Specifically out of scope are discussions around standardization of (or adopting a specific standard in the field of)

  • tracking, may it be visual or geo-based

  • sensors or any hardware-software interaction

  • screen-projection algorithms or the like

  • POI queries and POI storage formats

  • data transmission protocols

    The SWG can make suggestions on best practices, but does not aim to standardize these fields.

4.2 Specific Contribution of Existing Work as a Starting Point

Starting points for the SWG will be

  • KML for the POI data standard (and/or any other geo-based data format which can be used as input, such as GeoJSON)

  • ARML 1.0 ( and Wikitude ARchitect

  • JavaScript

  • HTML and JavaScript as a reference architecture, supporting declarative and dynamic/interactive components)

4.3 How it is to be Determined when the Work of the SWG has been Completed?

The ARML SWG will dissolve after the following three milestones have been achieved:

  1. The SWG has completed evaluation and incorporation into the candidate standard of all comments received during the public comment period.

  2. Approval by the SWG membership of a recommendation to submit the document to the TC for consideration as an OGC Adopted Standard.

       3. The candidate standard has been approved by the OGC Technical and Planning Committees as an Adopted OGC standard.

5. Description of deliverables

The following deliverables will result from the work of this SWG:

1. An annotated list of all comments submitted during the 30 day public comment period, including the comment, submitter, rationale, comment type/priority, and the response of the SWG.

2. A final version of the ARML 2.0 Standard documents for submission to the TC.

The deliverables of the SWG (including a timeline of deliverables) will be defined as follows:

  • [DONE] SWG Startup. 2011 November
  • [DONE] SWG develops ARML 2.0 standard proposal internally. 2011 November - 2012 September
  • [DONE] SWG prepares candidate standard for vote for public comment and OAB Review. 2012 October
  • [DONE] SWG votes to release ARML 2.0 for public comment. 2012 October
  • [DONE] OGC staff develops PR and announces availability for public comment. 2012 October
  • [DONE] 30-day public comment period. 2012 October - 2012 November
  • [DONE] SWG collects and collates comments into a single document. 2012 November
  • [DONE] SWG discusses and votes on comments and makes resulting edits towards final ARML 2.0 candidate standard. 2012 November
  • [DONE] SWG votes to approve release of ARML 2.0 candidate standard including changes resulting from the RFC. 2013 February
  • [ONGOING] Development of ARML 2.0 implementations
  • 60 day review period and associated TC e-vote to approve ARML 2.0 candidate standard as an OGC adopted standard. 2013

6.  IPR Policy for this SWG

RAND-Royalty Free.


7. Anticipated Participants

The target audience for the ARML SWG will mainly be

Augmented Reality Developers
Location Based Services Developers
Augmented Reality Service Providers and AR Browser Vendors Location Based Content Developers and Publishers

Companies and Brands willing to be represented in AR applications Game Developers (especially AR Game Developers)


8. Other informative information about the work of this SWG


Martin Lechner, CTO, Wikitude 

Charter Members:

Martin Lechner -(Wikitude), Josef Strobl (Salzburg University), Manil Maskey (U of Alabama Huntsville), Scott Simmons (CACI), Maureen Chen ( Feng Chia University), Matthew McBride (NOAA), Terry Idol (NGA), Herve Caumont Terradue), Joachim Pouderoux (BRGM), Blair MacIntyre (George Tech)