OGC Newsletter - January 2009
President's Message: The Year in Review
OGC Network Has Minutes of December 2008 TC and PC Meetings
News and Opinion From The Blogosphere
Website of the Month
New Members, OGC In The News, Events, Contact, Subscribe/Unsubscribe
Back issues of OGC News are available.
PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE: THE YEAR IN REVIEW
2008 was a good year for the Consortium. Overall, OGC achieved a remarkable set of accomplishments -- developing a range of new standards to address market interoperability needs; further globalizing and growing OGC membership; harmonizing OGC standards with broader IT standards; helping the user community create profiles of OGC standards for greater interoperability and use; and enhancing support for geospatial research. This is good news for OGC members and the global community that benefits from geospatial information and technologies, particularly given the worsening global economic climate that faces all of us as we enter the New Year.
During 2008, the OGC membership adopted seven new standards and updated several existing standards. The membership adopted an ebRIM Application Profile for Catalogues, and profile work progressed in Earth observation (the European Space Agency's Service Support Environment for testing OGC EO profiles), defense and intelligence, ocean observation, and urban 3D Models. Important standards development was done in the areas of geospatial rights management, Sensor Web Enablement (SWE), workflow management and service chaining, Aviation Information Management (AIM), and geospatial search and discovery in mainstream search environments. 21 existing OGC standards are currently in revision. Most will go through the public comment period, edit process, and member approval during 2009. (For more details, see http://portal.opengeospatial.org/files/?artifact_id=32041, accessible from the bottom of the home page of OGC Network.)
The OGC Interoperability Program facilitated a diverse set of interoperability initiatives and experiments.
Empire Challenge 08 OGC Pilot (EC08) -- This Interoperability Initiative was conducted as part of the US Dept. of Defense Empire Challenge Demonstration, an annual "distributed common ground/surface system" (DCGS) "distributed development test enterprise" (DDTE) capstone event. The event included agencies from the UK, Canada and Australia as well as US DoD. EC08 was the first in a series of planned annual OGC pilots to support Empire Challenge events. EC08 involved the "chaining" of geospatial Web services.
Architecture / Engineering / Construction / Owner / Operator (AECOO) Testbed -- a unique initiative that brings together expertise from the OGC, the buildingSMART Alliance, buildingSMART International, and major technology providers from the AEC community to advance building information model standards. This is a key technology area for OGC in support of 3D and 4D urban modeling and analysis. As we work together with partner standards organizations and their members, we will improve the industry's ability to address increasingly complex information integration issues.
GEOSS Pilot -- Development of Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) interoperability is led by the GEO Architecture and Data Committee. As part of this committee, the OGC leads a core task to develop the GEOSS initial operating capability. The OGC led the GEOSS Architecture Implementation Pilot, an OGC Interoperability Initiative, which has brought together technical contributions from over 120 organizations.
OGC Web Services, Phase 6 (OWS-6) -- OWS-6 brought together 10 sponsor organizations and 32 participating organizations to advance standards in five major technology focus areas or "threads," including a new aviation focus area. OWS-6 welcomed new players: EADS Defence and Security, the US Federal Aviation Administration, EUROCONTROL, the Joint Program Executive Office, Fedex and Lufthansa, to name a few.
Delhi Transit Routing Interoperability Pilot -- This initiative will demonstrate best practices and standards enabling interoperability among diverse information resources used for transportation routing in the context of transportation planning for the 2010 Commonwealth Games in Delhi, India.
In addition, OGC members made substantial progress on developing recommendations for the use of OGC standards in science. The Geo-interface for Atmosphere, Land, Earth, and Ocean netCDF Interoperability Experiment (GALEON IE) and Ocean Science Interoperability Experiment (OceansIE) produced Phase 1 reports that delineate best practice recommendations as well as feedback on changes and enhancements to OGC standards.
We ended the year with 370 members - an all-time high. University and research institute memberships rose to 120, also a new high. European membership grew at a record pace, capped by GeoVirtual (Spain) joining as a Strategic Member, our highest level of membership. In addition, several OGC members raised their membership levels - Leica Geosystems Geospatial Imaging became a Strategic Member, PCI Geomatics became a Principal-Plus Member, and EADS Astrium became a Principal Member.
We continue to globalize OGC membership and the implementation of OGC standards. OGC members approved a charter for an OGC France Forum. The France forum held its first meeting in April 2008. This Forum enables OGC members to conduct outreach, education and standards requirements coordination activities in a national to local context, and in the French language. Similar activities are in planning in India and in China. OGC signed a Memorandum of Understanding with industry leaders in China to form an OGC Steering Committee to explore OGC membership expansion and the formation of a China Forum. And in cooperation with GIS Development, OGC is advancing a Delhi Transportation / Routing Interoperability (DTRIP) Pilot Initiative.
For the first time the number of European members (171) , exceeds the number of North American members (157). European membership expansion brought with it sponsorship of OGC Interoperability Program testbed activities from organizations including EUROCONTROL, EADS Defence and Security, the European Space Agency, and the European Commission. Many EU Framework Programmes have embraced OGC standards. OGC Interoperability Days were held in Potsdam, Germany and in Orleans, France, as well as in the USA. OGC staff attended numerous international conferences and continued to organize and participate in GEOSS activities around the world.
Finally, the OGC Board formed an OGC Global Advisory Council (GAC), which will help to further involve leadership from nations and markets from around the world. The GAC will advise OGC on its globalization efforts.
We worked with an array of important Alliance partners to advance open standards. Key partnership activities for 2008 involved these organizations:
- buildingSMART Alliance and buildingSMART International - Building Information Models
- Digital Geographic Information Working Group (DGIWG) - NATO
- IEEE Technical Committee 9 - IEEE 1451 smart sensors
- OASIS - e-business
- IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society (IEEE GRSS) - Earth imaging
- Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) - Internet
- Open Grid Forum - distributed geospatial computing
- Workflow Management Coalition (WfMC) - business process management.
New alliance partnerships were formed through memorandums of understanding with the Workflow Management Coalition (WfMC) and OSGeo (open source). Discussions in 2008 paved the way for formalization of relationships in early 2009 with MISMO (mortgage industry) and OSCRE (real estate industry). We convened a special session of the OGC Architecture Board (OAB) at our Atlanta meeting in a "Geospatial Search Forum" that brought together representatives from several standards development organizations. And we worked with the aviation, hydrology, and meteorology Information Communities to develop GML encodings of information models to enhance intra-community and inter-community data sharing.
Compliance & Certification
We stabilized and grew the scope of our Compliance Testing and Certification Program. Five new tests await 3 tested implementations, and we are working with OGC members and with OSGeo through our Alliance partnership to encourage the submission of reference implementations for validation of new tests.
Other 2008 Milestones
Version 2.0 of the OGC Reference Model (ORM) was finalized and released. With this first major update in five years, the ORM continues to provide a framework for the ongoing work of the OGC and a guide for those who seek to implement interoperable solutions and applications for geospatial services and data.
Mike Botts received OGC's 2008 Gardels Award and Terry Fisher received an OGC Lifetime Achievement Award. OGC elected two new directors, Lisa Campbell and John Curlander, to the OGC Board. Dr. David Arctur joined OGC as Director, Interoperability Programs. OGC Chair David Schell was appointed to the US National Geospatial Advisory Committee. And two important surveys were done by OGC members. The first was a Spatial Data Quality Survey from the Spatial Data Quality Working Group, and the other was a broad public OGC Survey launched in late December 2008. We expect the results from the OGC survey, which closes at the end of January 2009, to provide further input for OGC improvements. If you haven't already taken the survey, please do! It's at http://www.surveyshare.com/survey/take/?sid=79356.
OGC: A Resource for Surviving the Recession
As we enter 2009, we face what portends to be a long and difficult global recession. Companies, agencies, NGOs and universities will look for ways to cut costs and increase revenues. Given the role of open standards in cutting costs and allowing greater flexibility to mobilize new capabilities, continued emphasis on adoption and implementation of open standards is a must in these times. So is continued involvement in standards processes like the OGC.
The OGC consensus process gives organizations the opportunity to effectively and efficiently shape the standards platform, understand customer requirements, form partnerships, stay at technology's leading edge, and share the cost of interface development.
We are a money-saving public-private partnership, a community of experienced problem solvers with a unique and profitable culture of cooperation, and we will have lot to do in 2009.
-- Mark Reichardt
OGC NETWORK HAS MINUTES OF DECEMBER 2008 TC AND PC MEETINGS
The OGC Technical Committee meetings held the week of 1 December 2008 in Valencia, Spain were sponsored by Generalitat Valenciana (CIT), Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN of Spain) and Universitat Jaume I. Minutes of the meeting are available to the public on OGC Network at http://www.ogcnetwork.net/node/504.
NEWS AND OPINION FROM THE BLOGOSPHERE
Below are some of the discussions of OGC and geospatial standards in the blogosphere since the last edition of this newsletter:
On 15 January 2009 Matt Ball posted "Weigh in on OGC Consensus Standards." Besides reminding his readers to take the OGC survey, he admits he was surprised at how long the list of OGC standards has become. He identifies the sensor web as one of the most exciting areas of OGC work. And it's nice to know he refers to OGC "as the 'brain trust' of the geospatial industry."
In her post of 10 January, "OGC/OSGeo Agreement Finalized," Adena Schutzberg described the key elements of the Memorandum of Understanding between the Open Geospatial Consortium and the Open Source Geospatial Foundation and expressed her hopes for what the agreement will accomplish.
"On the Surge in OGC SDI," posted by Adena Schutzberg 9 December, triggered three comments, all supporting the idea that there is a surge.
David Aylward posted (4 December) his article "A Fast, Effective and Efficient Emergency Communications Plan for the Obama Administration," with an invitation for comments and feedback. He spells out the importance of interoperability in emergency situations, and points out that OGC, with support from COMCARE, has developed a detailed plan to "[d]evelop and standardize the key shared 'core services' that will allow efficient interoperability over the entire safety enterprise..."
Jeff Miccolis announced that he has developed a KML Parser for the Feed API module of open source content management system Drupal. It enables users to aggregate the contents of KML files into Drupal. (4 December 2008)
Jeff Harrison's post of 2 December "EPA WFS - TNM 2.0 in Action" shows a map created by using EPA WFS, USGS NSDI WMS, Urban Areas WMS, Wake County WMS and FGDC Emergency Mapping Symbology. The map shows hazardous waste sites, a Superfund site, and the location of a toxic release in relation to streets, lakes and streams.
Matthew Kenny blogged on 1 December about coming across the article "An Overview on Current Free and Open Source Desktop GIS Developments," and how it helped him understand the difference between OGC and open source GIS software.
On 17 November, Matt Ball posted "Service-Based BIM," about OGC's AECOO-1 testbed.
WEBSITE OF THE MONTH
GeoEye uses OGC standards to help its site visitors consume GeoEye's imagery holdings. All imagery uses are envisioned as involving one of two fundamental processes.
- Quick Look: Does GeoEye have imagery for a specific place and/or time of interest?
- Analytical Look: Which of the relevant holdings over an area of interest will be most appropriate for analysis to support decision-making or advanced visualization?
From this basic understanding of what people visiting the site want to do, GeoEye set out to make it easy for its customers to Find, Use, Serve and Extend the GeoEye catalog of imagery and products to their customers -- thus the name GeoFUSE for the search and discovery applications. From the customer point of view, GeoFUSE makes it easy to get the right imagery to the right user at the right time in the right application. And from the company point of view, GeoFUSE makes it easy to put GeoEye imagery in front of "lots of eyeballs."
GeoFUSE services enable clients to consume both browse images and full resolution datasets. The GeoFUSE platform is built on Google and ESRI technologies. Google technology has seen widespread adoption by internet mapping users, and is suitable for Quick Looks. ESRI technology has been widely adopted by GIS users, and is suitable for Analytical Looks. In addition to OGC's KML, WMS, WFS and WCS, GeoFUSE uses other services such as HTTP, SOAP and REST.
The discovery process was designed so that a user will be looking at relevant content in three clicks and the fourth click will provide a preview of imagery. From the GeoFUSE home page (http://geofuse.geoeye.com), the first click -- on "Access Online Maps" -- brings up the search tool with a map of the Earth and a box in which to specify a geographic location of interest. Entering a place name (Mombasa, Kenya in Figure 1) and a second click zooms the map to the requested area. A third click specifies the Area of Interest -- a specific point, a polygon, or the entire map window -- and brings up image catalog results -- 43 images for Mombasa. The footprints and images can be toggled on and off for all of the images. The list includes columns for Src (which satellite), Cloud (percent cloud cover), Collected (date of collection). A fourth click, on the listing for image 8, delivers the browse image.
Figure 1. GeoFUSE screen showing list of images for Mombasa, Kenya, with image 8 selected and "Details" of the image toggled on.
For Google Earth users, GeoFUSE features Google Earth Integration Tools to facilitate search and discovery. A limited set of full-resolution images is also made available here so that educators, not-for-profit organizations, the media and others can use GeoEye imagery to illustrate current events. For ESRI users, GeoFUSE offers an Online Resource Center.
GeoFUSE supports KML 2.2; WFS 1.1; WMS 1.0, 1.1, 1.1.1, and 1.3; and WCS 1.0, 1.1, and 1.1.1. To view GeoEye imagery holdings with less than 20% cloud cover using WMS, public access is provided by http://geofuse.geoeye.com/ArcGIS/services/ThematicMaps/ByCloudCover_20/MapServer/WMSServer.
Similarly, to view the same holdings using WCS, public access is available through http://geofuse.geoeye.com/ArcGIS/services/ThematicMaps/ByCloudCover_20/MapServer/WCSServer.
A new development that will be moving from beta to GeoFUSE in late January 2009 will give users the capability to specify an area of interest by uploading a file that can be points/polygon as a Shapefile, polygons in KML 2.2, or polygons in GML.
The next step is to continue to collect input about desired functionality and performance. Recommendations selected for implementation are first made available by invitation on a beta site and thoroughly tested before deployment.
Upon being asked if the project involved any "lessons learned" related to OGC standards, the GeoFUSE team reported it was a huge lesson how easy it is to access GeoEye's holdings using WCS. Lisa Vicknair, Manager of Web Systems, says it is common for users who have seen their first demonstration of GeoFUSE to scratch their heads and say "It looks so easy." And to that, Lisa's reply is, "With OGC's WCS, access IS so easy!"
Final Reminder: Please Complete Survey on Business Benefits of Using OGC Standards - Become Eligible for One of 3 Technology Prizes
Researchers from the University of Illinois (Dr. Mu Xia) and the University of North Carolina at Charlotte (Dr. Kexin Zhao) have developed the survey in conjunction with the OGC. The survey will not only provide valuable input to research on standards development organizations and standards effectiveness, but it will help the Consortium to improve its ability to address geospatial interoperability needs. Please help us with our interoperability mission by taking the survey at http://www.surveyshare.com/survey/take/?sid=79356.
The survey should take 15 to 20 minutes to complete. Your participation is strictly voluntary but critical to our research. Your response will only be used for research purposes. It will be kept strictly confidential to the two university researchers. Data gathered from this survey will be summarized in the aggregate, excluding all references to any individual responses, and made available to the OGC leadership. An executive summary will be provided to survey respondents after we analyze and interpret the data.
If you have already participated in a similar survey for OGC TC members conducted in the summer 2008, you do not need to answer this survey.
As a gesture of our appreciation, we invite you to register to win one of three technology prizes that will be awarded randomly to those who complete the survey. The three winners get their choice of: (1) Seagate Xtreme Black 1.5TB 3.5" Hard Drive - 7200, USB 2.0, FireWire-400, eSATA; (2) Apple iPod Touch 16GB MP3 Player; (3) Able Planet NC1000CH Clear Harmony Noise Canceling Headphones.
Feel free to pass the link for this survey along to others you believe should take part in the process as well.
Resources: OGC Network, OGC Forum, OGC User
OGC offers a variety of open resources to the geospatial community interested in interoperability. OGC membership is not required to access or contribute to these sites.
OGC Network is designed to help you locate the latest information on OGC-compatible software, services, and information models (e.g. GML profiles, SLD examples, etc.). From this site you can quickly locate OGC-compatible geospatial web services, the latest XML schema documents, discussion forums, conformance testing resources, and GML profile working areas. A new category titled "Links to Videos" has been added, since more and more material is becoming available in that format. If you create or come across any resources that you think would help others, please contribute. Anyone can sign up for authoring privileges.
OGC User features websites that use OGC standards. Visitors can learn about a range of organizations and uses, and perhaps find a model that will inspire their own use of OGC standards. If you have created or come across a web site based on OGC standards that has not been featured, please send your suggestion to Editor opengeospatial org.
OGC Forum provides a place to ask and answer questions about OGC-related topics. Most of the forums are organized around a specific standard; Compliance Testing and General Comments are also established Public Forums. Registration and account activation are quick and easy, and open to everyone.
Web Map Service (WMS) in Wikipedia
Wikipedia's entry on Web Map Service (WMS) provides a concise introduction and includes lists of WMS clients and servers. The list of external links is helpful in guiding users to available data.
The ERGO (European Research Gateway Online) Project is developing interfaces to enable cataloguing, accessibility and interoperability of Earth-observation data. See the "Join and Share" page on the Heterogeneous Mission Accessibility - Interoperability program for an overview. The interfaces use Buddata ebXML Registry/Repository (ebRR), an open source implementation of the OASIS ebXML Registry and OGC Catalogue Service. Extensions of the OASIS ebXML Registry have been implemented to support geospatial capabilities. One of the main features of Buddata ebRR is a harvesting component with transformation capabilities to translate XML-based metadata in GML and ISO formats to ebXML RIM (with OGC geospatial extensions). The test framework is based on the OGC TEAM engine.
To explore the capability, visit the Service Support Environment demonstration page and browse the catalogue of Earth observation data.
Participation in OGC Makes Even More Sense During a Recession
Executives in all kinds of organizations strive to improve their organizations' returns on the limited investments they can make during a recession.
Agencies, major NGOs and technology-using corporations benefit from the well-documented cost savings that derive from using standards-based architectures, and OGC participation gives users a chance to see which companies support the standards the users want. In addition, the OGC Interoperability Program is a "value multiplier": Agency investment in OGC testbeds, pilot projects and interoperability experiments motivates other agencies and organizations to invest in the same initiatives, reducing each sponsor's share of the initiatives' costs. Also, agency investment attracts in-kind contributions from technology providers. The result is increased ability to integrate systems and protect technology investments, at a cost much lower than the cost of one-off integration projects that use custom interfaces and encodings. Near term and long term, OGC membership helps major technology users provide better service at lower cost.
Technology providers use the OGC to shape the standards platform, understand customer requirements, form partnerships, and share the cost of interface development, which is a significant item in most software vendors' development budgets. In addition, open standards open up new market opportunities by "connecting the dots" between different kinds of information systems and different application domains. As more offices in more technology-using companies and agencies begin producing and hosting spatial data, enterprise Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) become increasingly indispensable. The OGC's current work in sensor webs, rights management, workflow, service chaining, geosemantics and other areas supports SDI development and continues to generate new opportunities for geospatial technology providers.
OGC offers research organizations opportunities to form partnerships with and provide services to companies and government agencies. Technology providers and users at the "bleeding edge" of technology are well-served by institutes and university researchers who have the focus, intellectual energy and spirit of innovation to provide pre-market development services. Universities can also nurture and profit from start-up companies that bring new technologies to market, and geospatial open source projects based on open standards sometimes play a role. Finally, as "open access" becomes a factor in the business of science, funding is likely to become available to researchers with ideas for applying OGC standards to make geodata a shared resource.
Despite the troubling economic outlook, in the last quarter of 2008 membership in the OGC rose to a new high of 370. European membership grew at a record pace, capped by GeoVirtual (Spain) joining as a Strategic Member, our highest level of membership. It makes sense, because OGC membership is a "network effects" value proposition: the more members we have, the greater the value of membership! So, we invite our members to spread the word and invite other companies, agencies and research groups to join. And we remind you that getting others to join will reduce your organization's membership fee, as described in the October OGC Newsletter.
OGC welcomes new members who joined us recently.
123map GmbH & Co. KG (Small Company) (Germany)
Finnish Meteorological Institute (Associate) (Finland)
GeoVirtual (Strategic) (Spain)
Global Map Systems, Inc. (Small Company) (United States)
Intelligent Automation Inc. (Associate) (United States)
LSIS UMR CNRS 6168 (University) (France)
Seer Technology, Inc. (Small Company) (United States)
Ticheler, Jeroen (Individual) (Netherlands)
OGC IN THE NEWS
OGC in the News
The Earth Data Analysis Center at the University of New Mexico has developed a new WMS-to-KML conversion service. From a WMS GetCapabilities request, the service extracts the information needed to generate a KML file. This service enables Google Earth and other KML clients to access data available in a Web Map Service.
The January 2009 issue of SA Instrumentation & Control (the official journal of the South African Institute of Measurement and Control) carries "Sensor web enablement," the Abstract and Introduction to the article "Sensor Web Enablement of environmental monitoring and process control." OGC standards are used to monitor environmental hazards resulting from mining activity: "In a Sensor Web Enablement prototype, these sensors have been exposed through an OGC SOS (Sensor Observation Service), described by OGC SensorML (Sensor Model Language) and visualised in a SOS graphing client." The graphics are delightful!
The December 2008 - January 2009 print issue of Position Magazine has an article on "Community Schemas." This will sound familiar to those who read the previous issue of this newsletter, where we provided a link to Cameron Shorter's 10 October blog post on the same topic.
The December 2008 - January 2009 issue of Position Magazine posted online the Feature Article "On the Brink of a New Information Era," about the Shared Land Information Platform (SLIP) in Western Australia. SLIP uses Open Geospatial Consortium standards for interoperability - Web Map Service (WMS) and Web Feature Service (WFS). The architecture is consistent with the OpenGIS reference model, with the addition of capabilities designed to address security.
Linux.com posted a nice tutorial on "Displaying maps with OpenLayers" on 24 December. "OpenLayers implements the Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map Service (WMS) and Web Feature Service protocols." The examples use NASA's WMS server and satellite imagery. Scripts are provided and explained, and start with maps and layers, adding markers and then adding controls.
The 24 November issue of Government Computer News carried "The state of spatial data," featuring results of the OGC Data Quality Survey. The dispersed responsibility for the quality of spatial data was identified as "[p]erhaps the most surprising result..."
On 17 November, V1 Magazine carried "A Sustainable Building Industry Requires Service-Based BIM" by Louis Hecht, OGC's Director of Business Development. The current AECOO-1 testbed focuses on two technology threads: "1) building performance and energy analysis and 2) quantity take-off, that is, standards-based ways to derive more accurate quantity information and cost information from a building model." By moving away from the current file-transfer approach to data sharing and toward web-based information access, the construction industry will be able to reduce the negative economic and environmental consequences of construction.
The University of Wyoming featured a lecture by OGC's Chief Technology Officer, Carl Reed, as the GIS Day (November 19) highlight of its Geography Awareness Week activities. Carl's topic was "Geographic Information Systems: Moving to the Geospatial Web."
The International Journal of Geographical Information Science has accepted for publication "An Overview on Current Free and Open Source Desktop GIS Developments." Table 2 includes "Supported OGC Standards" as one of 12 criteria that can be used to evaluate open source software, and Table 4 spells out which OGC standards are supported by each of eight FOS (Free and Open Source) Desktop GIS packages.
The Latvian Open Technology Association held a conference on 12 November 2008. Athina Trakas, OGC's Director of Business Development Europe, spoke on "Benefits of Open Standards - how to engage with OGC." Slides 18 and 19, on Return on Investment, may be helpful to readers who have to strengthen their case for OGC membership in these difficult economic times.
OGC Press Releases
Climate Change Integration Plugfest to be launched at FOSS4G
January 20, 2009
OGC and OSGeo Sign Memorandum of Understanding
January 7, 2009
Successful OGC Interoperability Day Held in Orleans, France
December 10, 2008
GeoVirtual Takes Strategic Membership in the OGC
December 8, 2008
February 10-14, 2009
2009 Map World Forum
February 20-21, 2009
Visualizing the Past: Tools and Techniques for Understanding Historical Processes
University of Richmond, Richmond, VA, USA
March 30 - April 3, 2009
March '09 OGC Technical and Planning Committee Meetings
April 19-22, 2009
GITA GIS Conference
May 21-22, 2009
GEOSS Sensor Web Workshop
May 28-30, 2009
ISO/TC211 28th Plenary
June 15-20, 2009
GSDI 11: Spatial Data Infrastructure Convergence: Building SDI Bridges to Address Global Challenges
Rotterdam, The Netherlands
June 29-July 10, 2009
Vespucci summer institute 2009: 7th Annual Summer Institute on Geographic Information Science
Florence (Firenze), Italy
August 12 - 14, 2009
The 17th International Conference of Geoinformatics (Geoinformatics 2009)
George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia, USA
For further info on events please contact gbuehler [at] opengeospatial.org (Greg Buehler).
Please send comments and suggestions to:
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