Glossary of Terms - S

Spatial Archive and Interchange FormatÂ
The ability to change the component configuration of a system to fit desired application contexts.
scanned map
Analogue maps digitized by scanning. The data structure of scanned maps is raster.
A structured framework. A metadata schema specifies the order and types and labels of information elements describing a geodata set.
Standards based commercial off-the-shelf software. ("Off the shelf" means that the product is commercially available, without any need for customization.)
Source: PreANVIL Glossary
"(Geo)Spatial Data Infrastructure: a comprehensive package of consensus and initiatives required to enable complete provision of data, access and privacy within the territory of the designated infrastructure."
Source: PreANVIL Glossary
Standards Development Organization: any international organization that develops standards for the whole community. Includes de jure SDOs and standards consortia.
Spatial Data Transfer Standard. A standard vector format developed by the US Federal Geographic Data Committee.
semantic translator
A collection of mappings between a target Information Community`s data model and a source Information Community`s data model, generally held and maintained by the target Information Community, though both Information Communities may participate in configuring it. Usually expressed in terms of metadata, features, attributes and rules that permit information integration to occur when a feature collection is imported to the target Information Community from a source Information Community.
Sensor Collection Service (SCS)
Provides a web-enabled interface to a sensor, collection of sensors or sensor proxy. The Sensor Collection Service provides a standard interface for clients to collect and access sensor observations and manipulate them in different ways. SCS instances are collection points on the web for disparate types and instances of sensors. SCS instances deliver sensor observation values (e.g., temperature, ppm, chemical type) in response to queries form HTTP clients.
sensor domain model
The definition of a specific sensor type in accordance with the general sensor model.
Sensor Model Language
(SML) OGC`s XML-based language for describing and encoding sensors (in situ, satellite and airborne).
sensor web
A networked collection of sensors that can be remotely read and perhaps also controlled.
Sensor Web Enablement
OGC`s initiative to develop standards that support linking of environmental sensors to the World Wide Web. A Sensor Collection Service (SCS) server gathers readings from in-situ environmental sensors via a private network (cellular, microwave, etc.), and provides summaries or interpretations of those readings to SCS clients over the Web.
A computation performed by a software entity on one side of an interface in response to a request made by a software entity on the other side of the interface. A collection of operations, accessible through an interface, that allows a user to evoke a behavior of value to the user. ISO - 19119
service chain
A sequence of services where, for each adjacent pair of services, occurrence of the first action is necessary for the occurrence of the second action ISO 19119.
service interface
Source: ISO 19101
Shared boundary between an automated system or human being and another automated system or human being
service metadata
The most basic operation all OGC services must provide is the ability to describe themselves. This "Get Capabilities" operation, yielding a capabilities document, is common to all OWS1 services. An XML vocabulary comprised of several parts for describing different aspects of a service. The first unit describes the service interface in sufficient detail so that an automated process can read the description and invoke an operation that the service advertises. A second unit describes the data content of the service (or the data it operates on) in a way that enables service requestors to dynamically compose requests for service.
Service Model
The general model for online services.
service request
A request by a client of an operation from a service.
An ESRI published spatial data format.
Standard interchange format. SIF is a format which allows data to be transferred among dissimilar computer systems. SQL stands for Structured Query Language, a relational database.
Simple Feature Model
The general, descriptive model for how earth features may be represented as vector objects (i.e., points, lines and polygons).
Source: PreANVIL Glossary
Small or Medium Sized Enterprise (1-500 employed persons)
"Simple Object Access Protocol, a method invented by Microsoft to use RPC over the internet via HTTP calls. SOAP is now published as an W3C Note and implemented, among others, as part of the Apache XML Project." SOAP is a protocol specification that defines a uniform way of passing XML-encoded data. It also defines a way to perform remote procedure calls (RPCs) using HTTP as the underlying communication protocol. Development of SOAP is in the care of the W3C`s XML Protocols Working Group.
spatial reference system
Source: The OpenGIS® Abstract Specification Topic 2: "Spatial Referencing by Coordinates"
As defined in the OpenGIS Abstract Specification Topic 2 and ISO 19111. Position on or near the Earth's surface can be described by spatial reference systems. These are of two basic types: those using coordinates; and those based on geographic identifiers (for example postal addresses, administrative areas). Spatial referencing by geographic identifiers is defined in ISO 19112, Geographic information - "Spatial referencing by geographic identifiers." The subject matter of The OpenGIS® Abstract Specification Topic 2: "Spatial Referencing by Coordinates" is spatial referencing by coordinates.
Spatial Web
The Spatial Web is the spatially enabled World Wide Web. It is also the set of Web-resident open geospatial resources -- data, schemas and services - that enable people to publish, find and use Web-resident geospatial information off all kinds.
A document written by a consortium, vendor, or user that specifies a technological area with a well-defined scope, primarily for use by developers as a guide to implementation. A specification is not necessarily a formal standard.
Specification Program
The OGC Specification Program provides an industry consensus process to plan, review and officially adopt OpenGIS Specifications for interfaces and protocols that enable interoperable geoprocessing services, data, and applications. The OGC bodies involved in the Specification Program are the Technical Committee, Planning Committee, and Strategic Member Advisory Committee.
Structured Query Language. "SQL is a standard interactive and programming language for getting information from and updating a database. Although SQL is both an ANSI and an ISO standard, many database products support SQL with proprietary extensions to the standard language"
A document that specifies a technological area with a well-defined scope, usually by a formal standardization body and process.
State Plane Coordinate System (SPC)
A locational reference system developed in the U.S. in the 1930s which provides positional descriptions accurate to 1 foot in 10,000. The SPC system divides the United States into 125 zones (5 cover Texas) and employs both Lambert conformal and Transverse Mercator projections (depending upon a state`s size and shape). Within any given SPC zone, X-Y coordinates are given in eastings and northings. A central meridian passes each zone and is given a false easting of 2 million feet. A false northing of 0 feet is established below the southern limit of each zone.
stove pipe or stove piped
Colloquial term describing systems that are 'islands of automation,' that do not interoperate with other systems. Data in at the bottom, data out at the top, no sharing of data or services laterally.
Strategic Member Advisory Committee (SMAC)
The SMAC is granted authority to operate by the OGC by-laws. The SMAC has as a primary responsibility to recommend areas of strategic opportunity for Consortium operations and to recommend resource strategies in support of Consortium programs to the Board of Directors, Consortium staff and the Membership.
structured code
Refers to software designed such that a small central program makes calls to subroutines organized in external libraries: as opposed to the `spaghetti` code of large monolithic programs with integral functions and subroutines. This approach enables libraries called application programming interfaces (APIs) to provide a standard set of `hooks` by which a program can cooperate with other programs.
Styles provide the mapping from feature types and feature properties and constraints to parameterized symbols used in drawing maps
Styled Layer Descriptors (SLD)
A map-styling language for producing georeferenced maps with user-defined styling
"A program written in a stylesheet language for converting and/or presenting HTML, SGML, or XML documents. Stylesheet languages are e.g. CSS for HTML (and CSS2 for XML too), XSL for XML and FOSI and DSSSL for both SGML and XML."
Collection of components. E.g. Customer Management contains many software components including Party, Location, Post Code look-up, and assign new ID number.
2-deminsional geometric primitive, locally representing a continuous image of a region of a plane. (see OGC Abstract Specification (Topic 1) clause 6.3.17)
Surface Configuration Model
Defines the geometric characteristics of the Earth`s surface, exclusive of features which fall upon the surface; defined in terms of elevation, shape, roughness, slope, and aspect, with the later properties possibly derived from elevation.
"Scalable Vector Graphics, a language for describing two-dimensional vector and mixed vector/raster graphics in XML. SVG graphic types include text and XSLT can transform XML documents into SVG output. Thus SVG is a possible replacement for XSL FO. SVG tools are provided by IBM, CSIRO and Adobe." SVG is a standard application programming interface (API) for displaying graphics encoded in XML. SVG is used for presentation of GML data.
Symbols are bundles of predefined graphical parameters and predefined fixed graphic "images".
Methodology for describing symbols and mapping of the schema to an application schema. Portrayal requires symbology.
Calling application requires response to request before proceeding.
System Internal Interface (SII)
An interface between components within an application platform.

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