Engineering Reports

Documents that present technology issues being considered in the Working Groups of the Open Geospatial Consortium Technical Committee. Their purpose is to create discussion in the geospatial information industry on a specific topic. These papers do not represent the official position of the Open Geospatial Consortium nor of the OGC Technical Committee. Schemas for some of these documents can be at the Discussion Paper Schema Repository.

NOTE: Engineering Reports began publication within OGC in July 2009. Prior to that, these documents were considered Discussion Papers.

Document Title (click to view/download) Version Doc.# Editor Date
Testbed-12 Implementing Asynchronous Services Response Engineering Report    16-023r3  Benjamin Pross 2017-06-30
Most of current OGC specifications define synchronous communication patterns, i.e. after sending a request to an OGC service, clients need to wait for the response. But several applications, e.g. delivery of information about events or executing complex environmental models with long runtime, need asynchronous client-server interaction pattern that do not require clients to keep the connection to the server continuously open in order to wait for responses. At the moment, there are several approaches how to add asynchronous communication to existing OGC services: One option is to use a WPS façade, as the WPS specification already defines asynchronous service responses. Another option is to add extensions to the different specifications and the third option is developed by the OGC Publish-Subscribe Working Group. This ER summarizes and compares the results from the different activities for asynchronous service responses and provides recommendations for future activities.
Testbed-12 Big Data Database Engineering Report    16-036r1  Christian Autermann 2017-06-30
The amount of (geospatial) data collected and transferred is rapidly increasing. The purpose of this ER is to describe options and recommendations for the delivery of large amounts of data as database delivery. This ER therefore describes and evaluates different aspects of this challenge: Data management: How to organize large amounts of data so that it can be efficiently accessed through OGC service interfaces? Encoding: Transferring large amounts of vector data in XML based formats (e.g. GML, O&M) leads to specific challenges as the parsing of large XML files is often problematic. Available implementation: Several software packages exist to handle large amounts of geospatial data. We will investigate to which these approaches are in-line with OGC standards or how standards compliance could be achieved. The evaluation and findings in the related Big Data Tile Database Implementation are documented in this ER as well. The objective of this ER is to provide recommendations of how the delivery of large amounts of raster data as database delivery can be considered within OGC specifications and future activities.
Testbed-12 Data Broker Engineering Report    16-045r2  Daniel Balog, Robin Houtmeyers 2017-06-30
An important principle of a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is the notion of composing capabilities provided by individual services into complex behavior. A requester should be able to compose a solution using functionality or data offered by multiple services without worrying about underlying differences in those services. Each OGC service is designed to offer a specific type of data product via a service-specific interface. This Engineering Report (ER) describes a single service interface that allows access to multiple data sources, possibly heterogeneous with respect to the types of data provided. This report advances the work started in OGC Testbed 11 with the addition of heterogeneous data sources, as well as several other enhancements.
Testbed-12 WPS Conflation Service Profile Engineering Report    16-022  Benjamin Pross 2017-06-30
One practical purpose of this ER will be to describe how a conflation tool such as the Hootenanny software can be used for conflation tasks using the Web Processing Service interface. The developed WPS REST (conflation) Service will be described in detail. Special focus will be laid on more complex conflation tasks that include user interaction. During earlier testbeds, we connected different conflation tools to the WPS and performed different conflation tasks (see [1] and [2]). The experiences gathered there together with the ones gathered in the Testbed 12 will be captured in the ER. As the WPS REST (Conflation) Service will be RESTful, this ER could be the basis for a REST binding extension for WPS 2.0. Service profiles are an important aspect of the WPS 2.0 standard. We will investigate how a WPS 2.0 Conflation Profile could look like in the hierarchical profiling approach of WPS 2.0.
Testbed-12 Aviation Security Engineering Report    16-040r1  Aleksandar Balaban 2017-06-30
The information security is the state of being protected against the unauthorized use of information and services, or the measures taken to achieve that. This report has ben created as part of OGC Testbed 12 aviation thread and on behalf of sponsors from FAA. It gives the readers an overview into the topic of cyber security in the aviation domain, especially in conjunction with OGC compatible web services, which are today de facto standard for aeronautical traffic System Wide Information Management.
Testbed-12 Aviation SBVR Engineering Report    16-061  Timo Thomas, Aleksandar Balaban 2017-06-30
This engineering report (ER) is a deliverable of the OGC Testbed 12. It advances previous work in the area of business rules for AIXM 5 based on SBVR. It evaluates the use of geo-spatial operators and constraints in SBVR, including a proof of concept for their automatic interpretation by software. It gives guidelines on how to deal with temporality aspects and how to extend the applicability of SBVR towards filtering expressions and it identifies limitations of the currently available vocabulary.
Testbed-12 WPS ISO Data Quality Service Profile Engineering Report    16-041r1  Liping Di, Eugene G. Yu, Md Shahinoor Rahman, Ranjay Shrestha 2017-06-30
This Data Quality Engineering Report describes data quality handling requirements, challenges and solutions. One focus is on data quality in general that needs to be communicated from one service to another. In addition, it discusses WPS data quality solutions. The ultimate goal is for it to be nominated as a WPS ISO Data Quality Service Profile. ISO 19139 is used as the base to encode the data quality. WPS and workflows are used to streamline and standardize the process of data quality assurance and quality control. The main topics include: (1) generalized summary and description of the design and best practices for analyzing data quality of all feature data sources used in the Citizen Observatory WEB (COBWEB) project, (2) solutions and recommendations for enabling provenance of data quality transparent to end users when the data is processed through a WPS, (3) best practices and recommendations for designing and prototyping the WPS profile to support data quality service conformant to the NSG Metadata Framework, and (4) general solution for data quality fit for both raster-based imageries and vector-based features.
Testbed-12 FIXM GML Engineering Report    16-028r1  Thomas Disney 2017-06-19
The FAA and EUROCONTROL, in conjunction with multiple other international partners, are currently in the process of developing the Flight Information Exchange Model (FIXM). FIXM is an exchange model capturing Flight and Flow information that is globally standardized. The need for FIXM was identified by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Air Traffic Management Requirements and Performance Panel (ATMRPP) in order to support the exchange of flight information as prescribed in Flight and Flow Information for a Collaborative Environment (FF-ICE). FIXM is the equivalent, for the Flight domain, of Aeronautical Information Exchange Model (AIXM) and Weather Information Exchange Model (WXXM), both of which were developed in order to achieve global interoperability for, respectively, Aeronautical Information Systems (AIS) and Meteorological Information (MET) exchange. FIXM is therefore part of a family of technology independent, harmonized and interoperable information exchange models designed to cover the information needs of Air Traffic Management. Previous OGC IP initiatives developed an architecture that supports the exchange of AIXM and WXXM data. This report shall describe the integration of Geography Markup Language (GML) profile elements into FIXM, specifically, the Feature, Time, Geometries and Units of Measure (UOM), into FIXM version 3.0.1 and drafts of FIXM 4.0. The purpose of this report is to provide recommendations and change requests (CR) on the implementation of GML elements for use by the FIXM development community.
Testbed-12 Aviation Semantics Engineering Report    16-039r2  Aleksandar Balaban 2017-06-19
This engineering report examines the role of geospatial semantic technology in the domain of civil aviation. Many aeronautical services (providing information on request or processing the data) are based on OGC Web Service specifications. A number of aeronautical services possess geospatial attributes. The aviation services follow OWS Common Service requirements but also have domain specific capabilities. Services metadata is often very relevant for service consumption, especially in the SOA environment of aviation’s System Wide Information Management (SWIM). Therefore, it shall be exposed to consumer stakeholders for either design or runtime service discovery in an efficient, standardized way. This ER starts introducing the WSDOM service ontology developed by FAA for semantic service discovery. It proposes several extensions useful for OWS compatible, geospatial aviation services. It combines GeoSPARQL with WSDOM ontology and FAA service classification taxonomies and elaborates the interoperability between ontology based WSDOM and OWS compatible service descriptions.
Testbed-12 Semantic Portrayal, Registry and Mediation Engineering Report    16-059  Stephane Fellah 2017-06-16
This engineering report documents the findings of the activities related to the Semantic Portrayal, Registry and Mediation components implemented during the OGC Testbed 12. This effort is a continuation of efforts initiated in the OGC Testbed 11. This report provides an analysis of the different standards considered during this effort, documents the rendering endpoints extension added to the Semantic Portrayal Service and the migration of the Portrayal metadata to the Semantic Registry, which is aligned with the DCAT REST Service API. We also discuss the integration of the CSW ebRIM for Application Schema with the Semantic Mediation Service, and document the improvements of the SPARQL Extensions, Portrayal and Semantic Mediation ontologies defined in the previous testbed.
Testbed-12 Vector Tiling Engineering Report    16-068r4  Daniel Balog, Robin Houtmeyers 2017-06-16
This OGC Testbed 12 Engineering Report discusses the topic of vector tiling. While tiling and the use of multiple levels of details are a proven technique for raster data, it is relatively new for vector data. This is due to the increased complexity for tiling vector data compared to raster tiling. Further, there is a lack of standardization on the topic. Yet vector tiles can provide the same benefits as for raster tiles: Services can easily cache tiles and return them upon request, without the need for any additional pre/post processing (assuming no geometry construction is needed in the server). Consequently, clients can request and receive tiles quickly, ensuring better user experience. Due to tiled, multileveled data representations, clients can better access the data most suitable for their current map location and scale. This avoids the need to load too much data, which can cause both excessive memory usage and network traffic resulting in reduced overall performance. An example of vector tiling that illustrates the impact of these benefits is the OpenStreetMap (OSM) data store, which includes over 30 GB of data with worldwide coverage consisting of millions of vector features. Loading and visualizing all the OSM data into an application would either result in a memory shortage or unacceptable performance. By means of vector tiling and the generation of multiple levels of detail, apps using OSM data can load such data sets very efficiently into applications. This Engineering Report (ER) focuses on the general aspects of vector tiling. One of the main goals is to characterize what vector tiling is and how it can be approached. Highlighted topics include tiling approaches and strategies, tiling schemes, data coherence, simplification, scalability and styling. With respect to tiling schemes, existing standards material related to raster tiling schemes is incorporated to align both topics and to maximize interoperability. This includes the Defence Geospatial Information Working Group (DGIWG) Web Map Tiling Standard (WMTS) profile and the National System for Geospatial-Intelligence (NSG) WMTS profile as defined by the U.S. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA). The topic of implementing vector tiles using a tile encoding / storage format is not covered. A study of implementing vector tiles in OGC GeoPackage is part of a separate Engineering Report, OGC 16-067, that builds on the results of this ER.
Testbed-12 OWS Context: JSON, JSON-LD and HTML5 ER    16-053r1  Joan Masó 2017-06-16
At the time of finalizing this ER the OGC TC has approved the OWS Context JSON encoding that is available here: http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/owc This is the second encoding proposed for the OWS context standard precided by the Atom Encoding [OGC 12-084r2]. The OWS Context JSON enconding is based on the GeoJSON IETF standard [RFC7946]. The standard is a combination of two approaches: mapping between the OWS Context conceptual model [12-080r2] to the basic structure of a GeoJSON file. a direct conversion of the rest of the atom keys and the specific OWS Context XML into JSON following OGC 14-009r1. The conversion was designed with current GeoJSON viewers in mind (including the one embedded in GitHUB) and making possible that they can visualize a OWS Context GeoJSON file without any modifications. This ER focus on describing another encoding (a 3rd alternative) that allows for exposing geospatial resources on the web in a way that web browsers and search engines can better understand. It is widely known that HTML was designed with the linking capacity in mind. Both, users reading HTML and automatic crawlers, transverse links constantly. HTML seems the natural selection for linking geospatial data on the web. The question is how to complement the linking mechanism with some additional metadata that search engines could use for indexing. A solution could come from a mechanism which web search engines already have agreed to use for better indexing: schema.org. Schemna.org proposes three enconding for their data model: Microdata, RDFa and JSON-LD. The reader might easily get confused by the fact that OGC approved a JSON encoding for OWS context and another JSON encoding emerges in this document. This ER is NOT proposing to replace or modify the currently approved JSON enconding for OWS context based on GeoJSON. The intention is to map the OWS Context model into the schema.org model to recognize that they are very similar and propose a encoding in HTML5 that can be done in the 3 alternative proposed by schema.org.
Testbed-12 Multi-Tile Retrieval ER    16-049r1  Joan Masó 2017-06-16
With the consolidation of tiling services and the increasing number of instances implementing the WMTS standard, there is a need for having a way to transfer a collection of tiles from one service to another. This might also be useful to transfer all necessary tiles from a WMTS service to a GeoPackage. Currently the only available solution is a client that is able to resolve the identifiers of the tiles needed and that builds a WMTS independent request for each tile. This ER explores different solutions that are more appropriate depending on how many tiles we need to move and the final application of them. Some of the proposed solutions involve changes in the WMTS standard and the use of a WPS. The WPS standard also shows some limitations and extensions that should be addressed. In essence all solutions should describe two things: A request that contains a filter to a collection of tiles filling regions of the space and a multipart response that contains the tiles preferably in a single package. Depending on the proposed architecture, these tasks are done directly in the client, in the WMTS server or in an intermediate WPS.
Testbed-12 Aviation Architecture Engineering Report    16-018  Charles Chen 2017-06-15
This Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC)® Engineering Report (ER) describes the architecture implemented in the OGC Testbed 12 Aviation thread. This report provides an overview of the technical architecture for the interoperable exchange of flight and aeronautical information using OGC services. The aviation architecture consists of multiple components developed by the Aviation thread, as well as specialized engineering reports per each work area. This report will provide an introduction to each work area and contain references to applicable reports. This report also describes the Aviation thread demonstration scenarios, outcomes, and benefits.
Testbed-12 — Catalog Services for Aviation    16-024r2  R. Martell 2017-06-15
This Engineering Report (ER) presents guidance concerning the use of OGC® catalog services in the aviation domain. A wide variety of metadata resources can be readily published and discovered using the OGC CSW-ebRIM application profile, which marries the CSW catalog interface to the OASIS ebXML registry information model (ebRIM). However, existing SWIM registries currently under development by the FAA and Eurocontrol do not implement any OGC standards. This report explores the prospects for enhancing SWIM registries by a) integrating OGC catalog functionality, and b) accommodating OGC service descriptions.
Testbed-12 WMS/WMTS Enhanced Engineering Report    16-042r1  Lingjun Kang, Liping Di, Eugene Yu 2017-06-14
This Engineering Report (ER) describes requirements, challenges and solutions regarding improving multidimensional Earth Observation (EO) data access, discovery and visualization through Web Map Service (WMS), Web Map Tile Service (WMTS), and corresponding extensions. The ER will highlight solutions and recommendations of following main topics. 1) WMTS enhancements for time-varying layer access/discovery 2) WMS enhancements for NetCDF 3) WMTS enhancements for multidimensional domain discovery
Testbed-12 OWS Context / Capabilities Engineering Report    16-052  Joan Masó 2017-05-22
The OGC service metadata document (sometimes also called "capabilities" document) is a key part in the service discovery. It describes the service and also the resources that the service expose. Resources are listed in the service metadata document inside a section named as Contents by OWS Common. There are two main limitations to the current Contents section approach: OWS Common offers flexibility for describing resources and it only proposes a very minimum set of metadata in figure 7 of OGC 06-121r9 called DatasetSummary that need to be sub-classed (i.e. extended) by any specific application. As a result, each standard proposes its own alternative for it. Integrated client developers need to implement them separately. If the number of resources is very large or the service is highly dynamic, the Contents section can be too long or useless and neither the service nor the client can handle it efficiently. This Engineering Report proposes a double solution to the Contents section of the service metadata documents: It proposes ways to encode the Contents section using the OWS Context encoding data types and it introduces the use OpenSearch as a way to request a subset of the resources that the service can provide access to. In that sense, the use of the OGC 10-032r8 OpenSearchGeo can provide the long time needed geospatial and temporal filter capabilities.
Testbed-12 Compression Techniques Engineering Report    16-055  Jeff Harrison 2017-05-15
This Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) document provides an analysis of the prototype implementations, approaches and performance aspects of data size reduction and compression techniques explored in OGC Testbed 12. Specifically, it describes work done during Testbed 12 investigating compression for geospatial data sets on OGC Web Feature Service (WFS) using W3C Efficient XML Interchange (EXI) Format 1.0 (Second Edition). The investigation focused on extending WFS with EXI output formats, and the associated performance aspects of data size reduction and compression techniques. EXI is a compact representation for the Extensible Markup Language (XML) Information Set. EXI is intended to simultaneously optimize performance and the utilization of computational resources. From a practical viewpoint, EXI is designed to reduce the size of XML data exchanged between computer systems. EXI uses a grammar-driven approach designed to achieve efficient encodings using an encoding algorithm and a small set of datatype representations. Consequently, EXI processors are described by the W3C as ‘relatively simple’ and ‘can be implemented on devices with limited capacity.’ An EXI processor is used by application programs to encode their structured data into EXI streams and/or to decode EXI to make the structured data accessible.
Testbed-12 Catalogue and SPARQL Engineering Report    16-062  Gobe Hobona, Roger Brackin 2017-05-15
This engineering report has been produced by the OGC® Testbed-12 initiative. The engineering report evaluates interoperability between a variety of catalogues. The report presents a comparison of the catalogues, with the same datasets uploaded. The catalogues discussed in the report include services conforming to Catalogue Service for Web (CSW) version 2.0.2 and 3.0, including services based on the ebRIM profile of CSW 2.0.2 and an extension of CSW 3.0 with OpenSearch and SOAP. The engineering report presents results from tests using a multi-catalogue client to interact with each service. The engineering report also provides a comparison of CSW and services based on the Data Catalogue (DCAT) specification covering functionality, expressiveness and usability of CSW and DCAT. The comparison is supported by a discussion on the implementation of a SPARQL / GeoSPARQL service.
Testbed-12 Testbed-12 GeoPackage Mobile Apps Integration Engineering Report    16-030  Jeff Yutzler 2017-05-15
Testbed 12 work evaluates the interoperability of the Common Map API tool with commercial vendor tools supporting GeoPackage. Ideally data can be shared and exchanged between apps on a single device via GeoPackage. The demonstration will show the vector and/or routing data being used by disparate applications.
Testbed-12 Vector Tiling Implementation Engineering Report    16-067r4  Daniel Balog, Robin Houtmeyers 2017-05-15
This OGC Testbed 12 Engineering Report (ER) discusses the topic of implementing vector tiles in an OGC GeoPackage. This report builds on the general topic of vector tiling discussed in OGC Testbed 12 Engineering Report [OGC 16-068r4]. Since its public release in 2012, OGC GeoPackage has been getting increasingly popular within the geospatial industry for a variety of use cases, such as a means to package geospatial data for use on a mobile device and as a means to exchange geospatial data between two systems. The OGC GeoPackage standard currently specifies requirements (rules) for storing raster tiles and vector (simple) features. This Engineering Report proposes an extension to the supported data types by introducing an implementation for vector tiles. While tiling and the use of multiple levels of details are a proven technique for accessing and visualizing raster data, it is less commonly applied for vector data. This is due to the increased complexity compared to raster tiling and lack of standardization on the topic. Yet, implementing vector tiles can provide the same benefits as for using raster tiles. Services can easily cache tiles and return them instantly upon request, without the need for any additional pre/post processing. Consequently, clients can get tiles very fast, ensuring fast and responsive maps. Using tiled, multileveled data representations, clients can always access the data most suitable for their current map location and scale. This avoids the need to load too much data, which can cause excessive memory usage and reduce overall performance. The goal is to enable systems to use OGC GeoPackage as a means to store and access vector tiles in an efficient way, similar to raster tiles.
Testbed-12 TopoJSON, GML Engineering Report    16-056  Jeff Harrison 2017-05-15
This OGC document evaluates TopoJSON as an encoding that may be delivered across a common, standard OGC service interface such as WFS.
Testbed-12 Web Service Implementation Engineering Report    16-027  Johannes Echterhoff, Clemens Portele 2017-05-12
This document is a deliverable of the OGC Testbed-12. It describes the results of analyzing the Testbed-12 web service implementations. OGC has been developing web service specifications since the OGC Web Mapping Testbed in 1999. In particular, the original OGC Web Map Service specification has been developed during that testbed. 17 years later most current OGC web service standards still follow the general approach that had been developed in 1999 (the capabilities document, the remote procedure call via HTTP paradigm, etc). Over time, the OGC web service approach has been amended and extended in different ways by different OGC standards and profiles. In addition, some of the more flexible mechanisms have been used in practice in different ways by different software vendors or communities. The OGC Web Service Common standard had been a response by OGC to these developments and aimed at maintaining a consistent approach across the different OGC web service standards. However, this effort has been only partially successful for several reasons, including shortcomings in the OWS Common standard, the existence of multiple incompatible OWS Common versions and a reluctance by working groups and communities to introduce incompatible changes to existing service types in order to harmonize. All attempts in recent years to continue the work on OWS Common have not seen much traction. While there seems to be general agreement that the current situation is not optimal and that consistency is desirable, it is unclear how to improve in a way that meets market demands. This document summarizes information about the web service implementations in Testbed-12. It is not and should not be understood as a general analysis or assessment of the OGC web service architecture, but a low-key effort to gain some insights from looking at a significant number of web service implementations and their use in interoperability experiments and demos. During the years since 1999 not only the OGC standards baseline has evolved, but also the Web itself. The W3C has been working on identifying Best Practices for Data on the Web and W3C and OGC are jointly working on extending this with Best Practices for Spatial Data on the Web. The analysis also includes an assessment about the OGC approach to web services with respect to the draft best practices at the time of writing of this report. To the extent possible, we draw conclusions and recommendations from the information that has been gathered. These fall into three categories: Improving the interoperability of OGC web services as they are today Support for new requirements in a consistent way across service types Improvements to the standardization process In addition, there is also a specific case that does not fit into these general categories.
Testbed-12 REST Architecture Engineering Report    16-035  Christoph Stasch, Simon Jirka 2017-05-12
REST interfaces facilitate the application of OGC standards in many novel application scenarios, e.g. implementing OGC clients on constrained devices, as they ease the implementation of service requests and simplify the interaction patterns. Thereby, REST serves as a complementary technology to the already existing SOAP/POX provided by most of the current OGC standards. This engineering report (ER) provides an overview on different REST service implementations in the Testbed-12 and in related activities. As a result, this ER can be used to develop recommendations on architecture guidelines for providing REST interfaces in the geospatial domain.
Testbed-12 Semantic Enablement Engineering Report    16-046r1  Martin Klopfer 2017-05-12
The requirement for capabilities supporting semantic understanding and reasoning in geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) is an all-encompassing paradigm shift from the past. Standards play a critical role in ensuring this is accomplished in a consistent and repeatable manner. Semantic standards and services supporting semantic capabilities are at a relatively early stage of development. Interoperability between semantic standards for encoding relationships and Web based services for discovery, access, retrieval and visualization of those relationships requires more testing and evaluation. This engineering report (ER) highlights the key findings and discussions from Testbed-12 that enable semantic interoperability, including semantic mediation, schema registries, and SPARQL endpoints. It references key findings from the Semantic Portrayal ER and helps to understand the current OGC discussion on semantics in general.
Testbed-12 GeoPackage Change Request Evaluations    16-031r1  Jeff Yutzler 2017-05-12
Testbed 12 work has resulted in Change Requests (CRs) to the GeoPackage Encoding Standard. CRs have been submitted to the GeoPackage Standards Working Group (SWG) as GitHub issues. This engineering report (ER) summarizes the results of these activities.
Testbed-12 PubSub / Catalog Engineering Report    16-137r2  Lorenzo Bigagli 2017-05-12
This document describes how the OGC PubSub standard can be used as a mechanism to automatically notify analysts of data availability for CSW and other OGC Web Services (e.g. WFS, WCS). In particular, this document proposes the following: Specific PubSub 1.0 extensions for CSW 2.0.2 and 3.0, leveraging on standard functionalities, data models, and semantics to enable sending notifications based on user-specified area of interest and/or keywords; A general, basic mechanism for enabling PubSub for the generic OGC Web Service over the existing request/reply OWS’s, i.e. usual requests as filters, usual responses as appropriate updates/data pushes, existing semantics and syntax expressiveness. This document is the result of activity performed within the Large-Scale Analytics (LSA) Thread of the OGC Testbed 12 Interoperability initiative, being identified as document deliverable "A074 PubSub / Catalog Engineering Report". This document also captures lessons learnt from the implementation of component deliverable "A016 CSW 2.0.2 with PubSub Core Support Server".
Testbed-12 Imagery Quality and Accuracy Engineering Report    16-050  Joan Masó and Alaitz Zabala 2017-05-12
The scenario of rapidly growing geodata catalogues requires tools focused on facilitating users the choice of products. Having populated quality fields in metadata allows the users to rank and then select the best fit-for-purpose products. For example, decision-makers would be able to find quality and uncertainty measures to take the best decisions as well as to perform dataset intercomparison. In addition, it allows other components (such as visualization, discovery, or comparison tools) to be quality-aware and interoperable. This ER deals with completeness, logical consistency, positional accuracy, temporal accuracy and thematic accuracy issues to improve quality description in the metadata for imagery. Based on ISO 19157, UncertML and QualityML standardized measures, this ER describes how to encode quality measures in order to allow datasets comparison. Moreover, description of pixel-level quality measures is also included. Finally, alternatives to communicate tile level quality as well as mosaic products quality are proposed.
Testbed-12 GeoPackage US Topo Engineering Report    16-037  Robert Cass 2017-05-12
This OGC Engineering Report documents the outcome of the US Topo experiment. The focus of the US Topo experiment was to generate GeoPackages by combining USGS Topo Map Vector Data Products [1]; and the Topo TNM Style Template [2]. The output GeoPackages will contain both features and instructions for styling these features as well as orthoimagery, shaded relief raster tilesets, national wetlands raster tilesets and elevation data derived from USGS provide 1/9 arc second elevation imagery. The process used to generate the GeoPackage is explained. Problems and obstacles encountered decoding the source product and styles and converting these artifacts to a GeoPackage are explained with recommendations for improvements. Additionally, the experience applying the generated GeoPackage in two use cases proposed for this testbed will be evaluated. The introduction of symbolization for vector features will be articulated as a proposed extension for GeoPackage. Any issues related to encoding the TNM style template using the extension are documented.
Testbed-12 GeoPackage Routing and Symbology Engineering Report    16-029r1  Jeff Yutzler 2017-05-12
This OGC Engineering Report (ER) describes the results of experiments in OGC Testbed 12 designed to potentially enhance capabilities for symbology and routing [1] as extensions to the OGC GeoPackage standard. These experiments focused on 1.) methods for providing mounted and/or dismounted (off-road) routing within GeoPackage and 2.) mechanisms for providing user-defined map symbology for features in a GeoPackage structured data store. This ER documents the different approaches considered, design decisions and rationales, limitations, and issues encountered during prototype implementation.
Testbed-12 General Feature Model Engineering Report    16-047r1  Martin Klopfer 2017-05-12
With a growing requirement to carry out complex analysis in large multi-disciplinary, heterogeneous data collections, an approach is required to extract equivalent information from dissimilar content. The more information can be normalized, the easier it will be to correlate the content. Given that almost all data has a spatio-temporal component, this ER will look into the idea of defining a Spatial-Temporal Service and analyze which collection of data types, operations and architecture patterns would be necessary to spatial-temporal enable any content. This OGC® document reviews the General Feature Model and gives guidelines for necessary modifications to broaden its scope, so that it can be re-used for non-geospatial centric applications and extended as necessary into a general model for all object types.
Testbed-12 Javascript-JSON-JSON-LD Engineering Report    16-051  Joan Masó 2017-05-12
The Testbed-11 deliverable OGC 15-053 Implementing JSON/GeoJSON in an OGC Standard ER enumerated strategies for implementing JSON in OGC services and OGC encodings. Previously, a mechanism to migrate XML into JSON was proposed by Pedro Gonçalves in 14-009r1 OGC Testbed-10 Rules for JSON and GeoJSON Adoption: Focus on OWS-Context. In contrast, this engineering report (ER) proposes a mechanism to derive JSON and JSON-LD encodings from UML modeling without using XML as an intermediate step. The rules provided can be divided into rules for JSON instances and rules for JSON schemas. These rules have been applied to the UML diagrams in OWS common 2.0 to derive JSON encodings for them. In practice this ER evaluates how to provide service metadata in the derived JSON. JSON schemas and @context documents for independent validation of the four main sections of the ServiceMetadata are provided. This activity is done in connection with the OGC 16-052 OWS Context / Capabilities ER. The rules are applied to WMS to provide a full JSON encoding for the WMS 1.4 standard candidate. Finally, this ER discusses the applicability to data geospatial formats, both for coverage formats (compared to the CIS standard) and feature formats (compared to GeoJSON). Readers unfamiliar with JSON, JSON-LD and JSON Schema should first read OGC 16-122 (Geo)JSON User Guide. OGC 16-122 includes guidelines and recommendations for the use of JSON and JSON-LD in OGC data encodings and services.
Testbed-12 Low Bandwidth & Generalization Engineering Report    16-021r1  Benjamin Pross 2017-05-12
For delivering of data that is offered by OGC services over (very) low bandwidth, two options may be considered: On the one hand, the geospatial features remain the same, but compression techniques are used to reduce the size of the data that needs to be transferred. On the other hand, generalization techniques may be used by reducing the details of geometries and/or attributes in order to reduce the amount of data. The aim of this ER is to summarize the results of implementing sample services using compression techniques for DGIWG WFS (U002) and providing generalization processes using WPS (U003). The ER compares the results of the different approaches and infers recommendations and best practices for supporting data delivery of standard data and complex 3D data from OGC services over low and very low bandwidth.
Testbed-12 NSG GeoPackage Profile Assessment Engineering Report    16-038  Chris Clark 2017-05-12
The National System for Geospatial-Intelligence (NSG) GeoPackage Profile defines and tailors the implementable provisions prescribed for the NSG for a GeoPackage based on the OGC GeoPackage encoding standard. The profile provides detailed directions on how to use the clauses, options and parameters defined in the base GeoPackage standard. The goal is to ensure that NSG GeoPackages, GeoPackage SQLite Extensions, and supporting utilities and services fulfill their intended purposes and are fit for use. The goal of this Engineering Report (ER) is to assess whether requirements as specified in the proposed profile are specific enough to allow for any two independent GeoPackage implementers to produce and consume interoperable NSG GeoPackages. Concerns with the profile are outlined and recommendations for improvement are provided. Thoughts on the viability of the profile approach and guidance on how the profile could apply to Vector Tiling are also provided.
Testbed-12 WCS Profile Update Engineering Report    16-033r1  Ranjay Shrestha, Liping Di, Eugene G. Yu 2017-04-28
This engineering report capture the work to extend the existing Web Coverage Service (WCS) profiles, particularly the Earth Observation Application Profile (EO-WCS [OGC 10-140r1]) to support multi-dimensional subsetting of 3D space and 1D time. The updated EO-WCS (EO-WCS1.1 [OGC 10-140r2]) have removed the requirement for the 2D coverages so that it can explicitly allow coverages with more dimensions as long as they have geographic footprint. Furthermore it also clarified the use of rangeType when non-NCNAME characters are present in a band identifier. The example of GetCapabilites, DescribeEOCoverageSet, and _GetCoverage request in the updated EO-WCS1.1 is shown with use case on fire emission data in San Francisco. Following the recommendation for EO-WCS to fully embrace the N-D, multi-dimensional, concept of Coverages as a function of time and other coordinates alongside the geospatial ones, the proposed recommendations/changes in the extension for WCS DescribeCoverage, EO-WCS DescribeEOCoverageSet, and WCS GetCoverage are discussed with use case example using National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global 0.25 deg wind data. Based on the mutual recommendation from the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Baart et. al (2012), Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) was the output format due to presence of its libraries in multiple languages to lower the burden in changing on developers of WCS-compliant servers and clients. For the extension of the WCS DescribeCoverage, it is recommended that CIS1.1 should be considered adopting a scheme for transmitting coordinates similar to the _cis:rangeSet where data are referred to as an attached Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) part. Time, as much as possible, be treated as just another coordinates dimension so that it could be access with the same tools used for other coordinate dimensions. To tackle the issue on order of coordinate dimensions, it is recommended to add implementation note to the EO-WCS specifications so that implementers are aware of the mismatches between dataset coordinate reference systems (CRSs) and actual axis order. For the extension of EO_WCS DescribeEOCoverageSet, the issue on missing range of results API needed to be resolved by adding a request mechanism for requesting a range of matching results. It is also recommended that DescribeEOCoverageSet activity might be of more use to the client if the client need to supply only the subset conditions, and not a list of identifiers. For the extension of WCS GetCoverage, it was discovered that for the GetCoverage operation for higher dimensioned datasets, existing WCS-2.0 request interface provided adequate syntax for subsetting higher dimensional data. Scaling (re-gridding) operation appears to be a natural fit for the EO-WCS subsetting, specifically SCALEEXTENT activity, however simpler explanation might be needed to fully understand its use as it appears other scaling and subsetting commands may be more than adequate for the desired outcomes. Additionally allowing SlicePoint subsetting is also recommended. After performing the testing in the client side, there were few potential recommendations for improvements. More information on whether the coverage is 2D or 3D form the GetCapalilites request might be helpful to client so it can limit the number of DescribeCoverage requests to construct a list of available coverage on the server. Furthermore additional metadata information for displaying meaningful native gird coordinates is also recommended for clarification. Finally automatic detection of lat/lon axes along with clear treatment of XY and lat/lon axes ordering would be an improvement in the existing operations.
Testbed-12 WCS Profile Update Engineering Report    16-033r1  Ranjay Shrestha, Liping Di, Eugene G. Yu 2017-04-28
This engineering report capture the work to extend the existing Web Coverage Service (WCS) profiles, particularly the Earth Observation Application Profile (EO-WCS [OGC 10-140r1]) to support multi-dimensional subsetting of 3D space and 1D time. The updated EO-WCS (EO-WCS1.1 [OGC 10-140r2]) have removed the requirement for the 2D coverages so that it can explicitly allow coverages with more dimensions as long as they have geographic footprint. Furthermore it also clarified the use of rangeType when non-NCNAME characters are present in a band identifier. The example of GetCapabilites, DescribeEOCoverageSet, and _GetCoverage request in the updated EO-WCS1.1 is shown with use case on fire emission data in San Francisco. Following the recommendation for EO-WCS to fully embrace the N-D, multi-dimensional, concept of Coverages as a function of time and other coordinates alongside the geospatial ones, the proposed recommendations/changes in the extension for WCS DescribeCoverage, EO-WCS DescribeEOCoverageSet, and WCS GetCoverage are discussed with use case example using National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global 0.25 deg wind data. Based on the mutual recommendation from the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Baart et. al (2012), Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) was the output format due to presence of its libraries in multiple languages to lower the burden in changing on developers of WCS-compliant servers and clients. For the extension of the WCS DescribeCoverage, it is recommended that CIS1.1 should be considered adopting a scheme for transmitting coordinates similar to the _cis:rangeSet where data are referred to as an attached Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) part. Time, as much as possible, be treated as just another coordinates dimension so that it could be access with the same tools used for other coordinate dimensions. To tackle the issue on order of coordinate dimensions, it is recommended to add implementation note to the EO-WCS specifications so that implementers are aware of the mismatches between dataset coordinate reference systems (CRSs) and actual axis order. For the extension of EO_WCS DescribeEOCoverageSet, the issue on missing range of results API needed to be resolved by adding a request mechanism for requesting a range of matching results. It is also recommended that DescribeEOCoverageSet activity might be of more use to the client if the client need to supply only the subset conditions, and not a list of identifiers. For the extension of WCS GetCoverage, it was discovered that for the GetCoverage operation for higher dimensioned datasets, existing WCS-2.0 request interface provided adequate syntax for subsetting higher dimensional data. Scaling (re-gridding) operation appears to be a natural fit for the EO-WCS subsetting, specifically SCALEEXTENT activity, however simpler explanation might be needed to fully understand its use as it appears other scaling and subsetting commands may be more than adequate for the desired outcomes. Additionally allowing SlicePoint subsetting is also recommended. After performing the testing in the client side, there were few potential recommendations for improvements. More information on whether the coverage is 2D or 3D form the GetCapalilites request might be helpful to client so it can limit the number of DescribeCoverage requests to construct a list of available coverage on the server. Furthermore additional metadata information for displaying meaningful native gird coordinates is also recommended for clarification. Finally automatic detection of lat/lon axes along with clear treatment of XY and lat/lon axes ordering would be an improvement in the existing operations.
Testbed-12 Asynchronous Messaging for Aviation    16-017  Matthes Rieke, Aleksandar Balaban 2017-04-25
The Asynchronous Messaging for Aviation Engineering Report (ER) focuses on the design of an architecture to create an Publish/Subscribe (PubSub) messaging layer between different Aviation components such as clients, data provider instances and Data Brokers. In order to achieve interoperability among these components, the OGC PubSub 1.0 standard forms the basis of this architecture. The design of this architecture will cover methods for subscribing for specific subsets of data (e.g. Flight Information Exchange Model (FIXM) Flights intersecting a given Airspace), managing such subscriptions as well as publishing data to the Asynchronous Messaging Server. Different delivery methods such as Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) 1.0, Java Message Service (JMS) and OASIS WS-Notification are considered. In particular, their harmonization with OGC PubSub 1.0 is evaluated. This report focuses on the interface design required to define an interoperable approach for Aviation using this OGC PubSub 1.0. Specific service level integrations (i.e., Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) and Single European Sky ATM Research Programme (SESAR) SWIM) have been investigated but an implementation has not been fulfilled.
Testbed-12 Asynchronous Messaging for Aviation    16-017  Matthes Rieke, Aleksandar Balaban 2017-04-25
The Asynchronous Messaging for Aviation Engineering Report (ER) focuses on the design of an architecture to create an Publish/Subscribe (PubSub) messaging layer between different Aviation components such as clients, data provider instances and Data Brokers. In order to achieve interoperability among these components, the OGC PubSub 1.0 standard forms the basis of this architecture. The design of this architecture will cover methods for subscribing for specific subsets of data (e.g. Flight Information Exchange Model (FIXM) Flights intersecting a given Airspace), managing such subscriptions as well as publishing data to the Asynchronous Messaging Server. Different delivery methods such as Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) 1.0, Java Message Service (JMS) and OASIS WS-Notification are considered. In particular, their harmonization with OGC PubSub 1.0 is evaluated. This report focuses on the interface design required to define an interoperable approach for Aviation using this OGC PubSub 1.0. Specific service level integrations (i.e., Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) and Single European Sky ATM Research Programme (SESAR) SWIM) have been investigated but an implementation has not been fulfilled.
Testbed-12 Semantic Portrayal, Registry and Mediation Engineering Report    16-059  Stephane Fellah 2017-04-25
This engineering report documents the findings of the activities related to the Semantic Portrayal, Registry and Mediation components implemented during the OGC Testbed 12. This effort is a continuation of efforts initiated in the OGC Testbed 11. This report provides an analysis of the different standards considered during this effort, documents the rendering endpoints extension added to the Semantic Portrayal Service and the migration of the Portrayal metadata to the Semantic Registry, which is aligned with the DCAT REST Service API. We also discuss the integration of the CSW ebRIM for Application Schema with the Semantic Mediation Service, and document the improvements of the SPARQL Extensions, Portrayal and Semantic Mediation ontologies defined in the previous testbed.
Testbed-12 ShapeChange Engineering Report    16-020  Johannes Echterhoff 2017-04-04
This document is a deliverable of the OGC Testbed 12. It describes the results of enhancing the tool ShapeChange in the following areas of processing an ISO 19109 conformant application schema: Creating a schema profile - to support implementations that focus on a subset of the use cases in scope of the original application schema. Deriving an ontology representation of the application schema (using RDF(S)/SKOS/OWL) - to support Semantic Web / Linked Data implementations.
Testbed-12 OWS Common Security Extension ER    16-048r1  Andreas Matheus 2017-03-10
The OGC suite of standards address the interoperable exchange of geographic information. The Web Service Implementation Standards define the discovery, delivery, and processing services that make information exchange possible. Common aspects of those Web Service standards have been collected into the OGC Web Services Common standard. While there are multiple versions of OWS Common, and flexibility in how it is applied, this combination of standards does enable interoperability. However, OWS Common neglected to address security. As soon as a service endpoint (an OGC Web Service instance) is secured, there is no guarantee of interoperability. The OWS Common - Security Standards Working Group (SWG) was approved by the TC in September 2015 (http://www.opengeospatial.org/projects/groups/comsecurityswg). It held its first meeting during the December 2015 TC meetings. The objective of this SWG to define an extension to the existing OWS Common to ensure interoperability between a secured service instance and client. This "OWS Common Security Extension" adds content to the standard regarding the implementation of security controls in such a way as to preserve interoperability. These additions will be in two areas. The first extension will provide more detail on the use of the HTTP protocol, particularly as it related to security controls. The second extension will address discovery and negotiation of security controls. This will provide an annotation model for the Capabilities document to enable a service provider to specify the security implemented at a service instance (endpoint). This ER shall serve as the technical background to the OWS Common - Security SWG to ensure that the standard that is to be created is comprehensive and suitable for all OGC Web Services standards, to overcome the interoperability hurdle, and - at the same time - maintain backwards compatibility.
Testbed-12 Web Integration Service    16-043  Panagiotis (Peter) A. Vretanos 2017-03-10
For many years OGC has been developing a suite of standards defining web services interfaces and encodings for geospatial processing. The suite includes a Web Map Service (WMS), a Web Map Tiling Service (WMTS), a Web Feature Service (WFS), a Web Coverage Service (WCS), a Web Catalogue Service (CSW), the Sensor Web (SWE) suite of services, etc. These service interfaces and their implementations have, more or less, been developed independently of one another resulting in isolation and poor integration between them. For example, consider a map generated by a WMS. A client or user cannot easily determine which source data was used to create the map and how to download that source data though an OGC data service such as WFS or WCS. Furthermore when one considers the Publish-Find-Bind paradigm, OGC can only partially support the full potential of this paradigm. This is because OGC structured catalogues can only register services in isolation of other related services and cannot automatically determine the relationships among services and the resources they offer. In order to achieve better integration between OGC web services and enhance the publish-find-bind paradigm, this OGC Engineering Report defines and discusses three key elements. These are: Defining a new service, called the Web Integration Service (WIS), which allows for the discovery and access to integrated sets of OGC web services deployed at an endpoint. Specifying a means of discovering and describing associations between web resources (both OGC and non-OGC). Defining extensions to the OGC catalogue to allow the service to harvest and make discoverable a rich set of linked OGC and non-OGC resources. The Web Integration Service (WIS) is an aggregation service whose only purpose is to provide a list of references to a suite of other, perhaps related OGC services available at an endpoint. A new operation, named GetAssociations, is defined as an extension such that existing OGC services (WMS, WFS, WCS, etc.) may implement this operation in order to support rich auto-discovery. This operation enables OGC web services to externalize their internal association knowledge about their content and relationships to other OGC and external resources. For example, a WMS would know if the source data for a layer it offers is a Shapefile, or a WFS feature type, or another WMS layer (i.e. cascading), or if a WMTS layer exists that renders the same information more efficiently. This "internal knowledge" can now be externalized via the GetAssociations operation. Currently, OGC Catalogues Service instances can harvest the capabilities document of an OGC web service, register that service, register the existence of the individual offerings that the service offers and also register the association between the service and the content it offers. Thus, the entire harvesting process is focused on a single OGC web service and consequently offers a limited scope of discovery. In order to support rich discovery, a catalogue needs to be able to automatically register services found at an endpoint as well as register all known associations among those services, their offerings and other OGC and non-OGC resources. This involves harvesting a service’s capabilities document to determine what content the service offers but it also involves further interrogating the service to determine of what (if any) other associations it is aware. Populated with this enhanced knowledge a client may now use a catalogue to, for example, find the description of feature data and then be able to find the WFS that offer that data, a WMS that renders those features into a map, a WMTS that has a tiled representation of that data, etc. In order to support this kind of rich discovery, a new CSW-ebRIM package is specified that defines ebRIM object types, associations, classifications and stored queries that support the description of integrated OGC web service and their artifacts within the catalogue.
Testbed-12 LiDAR Streaming Engineering Report    16-034  Simon Jirka, Arne de Wall, Christoph Stasch 2017-03-09
This Engineering Report describes how developments of the Community Sensor Model Working Group (CSMW) can be harmonized with the latest SWE specifications and developments in order to support streaming of LiDAR data with SWE technologies. The report will therefore provide an overview on both initiatives and then describe different options how to integrate LiDAR data streams and SWE technologies. In particular, the ER will consider the results of the activities SOS Compression (LiDAR) Server (A012) and LiDAR Streaming Client (A010) and infer recommendations for future developments.
Testbed-12 Web Feature Service Synchronization    16-044  Panagiotis (Peter) A. Vretanos 2017-03-09
This engineering report describes a protocol for synchronizing data between two enterprise servers. While the protocol itself is generic, this engineering report describes its application to web feature servers. In the simplest terms, the protocol involves each synchronization peer accessing the other’s "Sync" resource to get the set of changed objects since the last time the "Sync" resource was accessed. In the case of web feature servers, the objects are features. The requesting peer then compare that list of changed features with the identically identified features in its data store and performs any necessary changes so that the feature states match. Continuing the work done in Testbed-11, this engineering report describes the implementation of a Sync operation in a WFS server that: Enhances the Sync operation from Testbed-11 to include an abstract query element where each service type can then substitute their specific query syntax for identifying the specific sub-set of changed features to be synchronized. In the case of the WFS, several query syntaxes may be used including the wfs:Query element and a REST based feature type URI with query parameters. Extends the definition of the Sync operation with the addition of a "resultType" parameter to allow a client to obtain a hit count of the number of features that a Sync operation shall return. Shall investigate the proper procedure for handling resource references. Implementing the resolvePath parameter alone is not sufficient to ensure complete data set synchronization. Shall investigate concurrency and consistency issues.
Testbed-12 Arctic Spatial Data Infrastructure Engineering Report    16-063  Stefano Cavazzi, Roger Brackin 2017-03-08
This engineering report captures use cases representative of the vision of the Arctic Spatial Data Infrastructure (ArcticSDI). The ArcticSDI is a cooperative initiative established between the eight National Mapping Agencies of Canada, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden, USA and Denmark, with the aim of providing governments, policy makers, scientists, private enterprises and citizens in the Arctic with access to geographically related Arctic data, digital maps, and tools to facilitate monitoring and decision-making. The initiative will achieve this aim by providing a framework of spatial information resources, organizational structures, technologies of creation, processing and exchange of spatial data, that provides broad access and efficient use of spatial data for the Arctic. The engineering report provides a review of the policy drivers supporting the establishment of spatial data infrastructure (SDI) in each Arctic nation in order to improve understanding of the use cases, user groups and the impact an ArcticSDI may have on their day-to-day business. The engineering report presents lessons learnt along each of the components of SDI, for example, users, data, technology, standards, policy and others. A discussion is presented on how the technologies and standards already in use by the national mapping agencies relate to the technologies and standards implemented by the testbed, as well as how emerging geospatial standards could benefit the ArcticSDI.
OGC® CityGML Quality Interoperability Experiment    16-064r1  Detlev Wagner, Hugo Ledoux 2016-08-01
This OGC Engineering Report specifies the results and findings of the CityGML Quality Interoperability Experiment. Guidelines were developed for the following concepts: 􀀀 Definition of data quality; 􀀀 Data quality requirements and their specification; 􀀀 Quality checking process of CityGML data; and 􀀀 Description of validation results. The desired outcomes of this Interoperability Experiment are to improve the interoperability of CityGML data by removing some ambiguities from the current standard and formally defining data quality requirements for a general CityGML data specification. Further, the results of this work provides to the community (organizations invested in capturing, procuring, or utilizing CityGML data) recommended implementation guidance for 3D data and a suite of essential quality checking tools to carry out quality assurance on CityGML data.
OGC Soil Data Interoperability Experiment    16-088r1  Alistair Ritchie 2016-07-26
This engineering report describes the results of the Soil Data Interoperability Experiment (the IE) conducted under the auspices of the OGC Agriculture Domain Working Group in 2015. Soil data exchange and analysis is compromised by the lack of a widely agreed international standard for the exchange of data describing soils and the sampling and analytical activities relating to them. Previous modeling activities in Europe and Australasia have not yielded models that satisfy many of the data needs of global soil scientists, data custodians and users. This IE evaluated existing models and proposed a common core model, including a GML/XML schema, which was tested through the deployment of OGC web services and demonstration clients. IE time constraints and limited participant resources precluded extensive modeling activities. However, the resulting model should form the core of a more comprehensive model to be developed by a future OGC Soil Data Standards Working Group.
OGC GroundWaterML 2 – GW2IE FINAL REPORT    15-082  Boyan Brodaric 2016-04-27
This document describes a conceptual model, logical model, and GML/XML encoding rules for the exchange of groundwater data. In addition, this document provides GML/XML encoding examples for guidance.
OGC® Testbed-11 SOAP Interface Engineering Report: Comparison on the Usage of SOAP Across OGC Web service interfaces    15-077r1  Ingo Simonis 2016-02-03
A number of OGC service interface standards define SOAP bindings. Despite the current hype around REST or RESTful interfaces, SOAP services are still used intensively, in particular in security-critical environments. A number of OGC Web service interfaces support SOAP bindings (see chapter 6). Unfortunately, those bindings are not fully consistent across the suite of OGC service standards. Differences can be found in terms of SOAP versions, used namespaces, error handling, capabilities documentation, or transport of non-XML data; i.e. aspects that should be harmonized by a cross-standard working group. This document seeks to provide an overview of the current situation and guidance on future SOAP harmonization across all OGC Web services. A number of change requests have been developed during the development process for this document. Though this document provides recommendations in chapter 8, it is highly recommended to either form a new SOAP working group, or preferably to assign the development of SOAP best practices to reduce the risk of missed requirements and architecture arguments to the newly reformed OWS Common SWG. The best practices could then be applied to all OGC service standards that offer SOAP bindings.
OGC® Testbed-11 WFS-T Information Exchange Architecture    15-010r4  Panagiotis (Peter) A. Vretanos 2016-01-28
This document presents an assessment of the conformance level, with respect to the WFS standard (OGC 09-025r2), of the web feature servers used in the OGC Testbed-11. Each server is accessed to determine if it conforms to the minimum requirements of the WFS standard. Each server is further accessed to determine whether the server offers additional, upcoming and complimentary capabilities just as support for the WFS REST API and GeoJSON. This document offers recommendations to aid implementers of the WFS standard (OGC 09-025r2). This document presents options available to WFS implementers for achieving interoperability between WFS clients and server at the schemas level. This document includes a survey of available WFS clients and an assessment of their capabilities. This document reviews tools and standards, such as the GeoSynchronization Service (OGC 10-069r3), that are complimentary components that may be used with a WFS to address requirements such as verification and notification, data and access security, exception handling and system hardening. Finally, this document includes a FAQ composed of questions raised during the OGC Testbed-11.
OGC Testbed-11 Multiple WFS-T Interoperability    15-011r2  Panagiotis (Peter) A. Vretanos 2016-01-28
This document describes the work done in the OGC Testbest-11 to support multiple WFS-T instance interoperability by way of a transaction scenario involving the interaction between clients and multiple WFS-T servers as well as the interaction between the servers themselves, especially in the use case of enterprise-to-enterprise data synchronization. The document presents an overview of the transaction scenario, the components used to implement the scenario in the OGC Testbed-11 demo and the new capabilities added to the WFS-T server to support the scenario.
OGC Testbed-11 NIEM & IC Data Encoding Specification Assessment and Recommendations Engineering Report    15-048r3  Jeff Harrison 2016-01-25
The goal of the Geo4NIEM thread in Testbed 11 was to gain Intelligence Community (IC) concurrence of the National Information Exchange Model (NIEM) Version 3.0 architecture through the development, implementations, test, and robust demonstration making use of IC specifications, Geography Markup Language (GML), and NIEM in a simulated “real-world” scenario. The demonstration scenario begins with NIEMconformant Information Exchange Packages (IEPs) containing operational data and IC security tags from the Information Security Marking (ISM) and Need-To-Know (NTK) access control metadata, and the Trusted Data Format (TDF) for binding assertion metadata with data resource(s). Those instance documents are deployed on Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Services to be used by client applications. Access control is based on attributes of the end-user and the instance data. Recommendations to update these information exchanges were provided to reflect NIEM 3.0 architecture and security tags in a ‘NIEM/IC Data Encoding’. The assessment exercised this data encoding in OGC Web Feature Services (WFS) and Policy Enforcement Points (PEP) accessed by multiple client applications. Results from this task provided a preliminary architecture that was tested and demonstrated in Testbed 11, and summarized in other OGC Testbed 11 Engineering Reports.
Testbed-11 NIEM-IC Feature Processing API using OGC Web Services    15-047r3  Jeff Harrison 2016-01-25
The goal of the Geo4NIEM thread in Testbed 11 was to gain Intelligence Community (IC) concurrence of the National Information Exchange Model (NIEM) Version 3.0 architecture through the development, implementations, test, and robust demonstration making use of IC specifications, Geography Markup Language (GML), and NIEM in a simulated “real-world” scenario. The demonstration scenario begins with NIEM-conformant Information Exchange Packages (IEPs) containing operational data and IC security tags from the Information Security Marking (ISM) and Need-To-Know (NTK) access control metadata, and the Trusted Data Format (TDF) for binding assertion metadata with data resource(s). Those instance documents are deployed on Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Services to be used by client applications. Access control is based on attributes of the end-user and the instance data. The assessment included reviewing example IEPDs and performing test and demonstrations using OGC web services, such as Transactional Web Feature Services (WFS-T), Policy Enforcement Points (PEPs) and OGC Attribute Stores to process geographic feature with NIEM components and security tags. The Test and Demonstration included, but was not limited to feature retrieval and transactions. Recommendations to update these information exchanges were provided to reflect NIEM 3.0 architecture and security tags in a ‘NIEM/IC Feature Processing API’. Results from this task helped provide a preliminary architecture for Geo4NIEM in Testbed 11, summarized in other OGC Testbed 11 Engineering Reports. This task also identified potential change requests to OGC WFS or other OGC Services for handling security information in a federated role-based access control environment. These changes may help the NIEM/IC transform into more agile and customer-centric frameworks driven by collaborative partnerships. This transformation is vital to confronting the security challenges of the future.
Testbed-11 OGC IP Engineering Report Geo4NIEM Architecture Design and Implementation Guidance and Fact Sheet    15-051r3  Jeff Harrison 2016-01-25
The goal of the Geo4NIEM thread in Testbed 11 was to assess the potential for the National Information Exchange Model (NIEM) to be combined with security tags from Intelligence Community (IC) Data Encoding Specifications for information exchange. The assessment included reviewing Information Exchange Package Documentation (IEPD) populated with relevant content and IC security tags – and then deploying these instance documents on Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards enabled Web Services for testing. The security tags included Information Security Marking Metadata (ISM) and Need-to-Know (NTK) Metadata for secure information exchange. The assessment included reviewing example IEPDs and performing tests and demonstrations using OGC web services, such as Transactional Web Feature Services (WFS-T), Policy Enforcement Points (PEPs) and OGC Attribute Stores to process geographic feature with NIEM components and security tags. The Test and Demonstration included, but was not limited to, feature retrieval and transactions. Results were documented in this task to provide a preliminary architecture for Geo4NIEM in Testbed 11, and were described in technical detail in other OGC Testbed 11 Engineering Reports. This document describes background considerations – and an overview of the services, data encodings and access control frameworks that compose the Geo4NIEM Testbed 11 architecture. This document must be reviewed in conjunction with the following Testbed 11 Geo4NIEM ERs: • 15-048 Testbed11_Engineering_Report_NIEM-IC Data Encoding Specification Assessment and Recommendations • 15-047 Testbed11_Engineering_Report NIEM-IC Feature Processing API using OGC Web Services • 15-050 Testbed11_Engineering_Report Test and Demonstration Results for NIEM using IC Data Encoding Specifications
OGC Testbed-11 Test and Demonstration Results for NIEM using IC Data Encoding Specifications Engineering Report    15-050r3  Jeff Harrison 2016-01-25
The goal of the Geo4NIEM thread in Testbed 11 was to gain Intelligence Community (IC) concurrence of the National Information Exchange Model (NIEM) Version 3.0 architecture through the development, implementations, test, and robust demonstration making use of IC specifications, Geography Markup Language (GML), and NIEM in a simulated “real-world” scenario. The demonstration scenario begins with NIEMconformant Information Exchange Packages (IEPs) containing operational data and IC security tags from the Information Security Marking (ISM) and Need-To-Know (NTK) access control metadata, and the Trusted Data Format (TDF) for binding assertion metadata with data resource(s). Those instance documents are deployed using Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards enabled Web Services for use by client applications. Access control is based on attributes of the end-user and the instance data. Recommendations to update these information exchanges were provided to reflect NIEM 3.0 architecture and security tags in a ‘NIEM/IC Data Encoding’. The assessment tested this data encoding in OGC Web Feature Services (WFS) and Policy Enforcement Points (PEP) accessed by multiple client applications. Results from this task provided a preliminary architecture that was tested and demonstrated in Testbed 11, and summarized in other OGC Testbed 11 Engineering Reports. The demonstrations also highlighted how NIEM and IC data encodings together may support more agile and customer-centric frameworks driven by collaborative partnerships. This transformation is vital to confronting the security challenges of the future.
Testbed 11 Geospatial Enhancement for the National Information Exchange Model (Geo4NIEM) Round Trip Engineering Report    15-030r3  Scott Serich 2016-01-25
The goal of the Geo4NIEM thread in OGC Testbed 11 was to gain Intelligence Community (IC) concurrence of the National Information Exchange Model (NIEM) Version 3.0 architecture through the development, implementations, test, and robust demonstration making use of IC specifications, Geography Markup Language (GML), and NIEM in a simulated “real-world” scenario. The demonstration scenario begins with NIEM-conformant Information Exchange Packages (IEPs) containing operational data and IC security tags from the Information Security Marking (ISM) and Need-To-Know (NTK) access control metadata, and the Trusted Data Format (TDF) for binding assertion metadata with data resource(s). Those instance documents are deployed using Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) enabled Web Services for access by client applications. Access control is based on attributes of the end-user and the instance data Recommendations to update these information exchanges were provided to reflect NIEM 3.0 architecture and security tags in a ‘NIEM/IC Data Encoding’. The assessment exercised this data encoding in OGC Web Feature Services (WFS) and Policy Enforcement Points (PEP) accessed by multiple client applications. The round-trip assessment also exercised the OGC Transactional Web Feature Services (WFS-T). Results from this task provided a preliminary architecture that was tested and demonstrated in Testbed 11, and summarized in other OGC Testbed 11 Engineering Reports.
OGC® Testbed 11 Digital Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) Validation and Enrichment Service Engineering Report    15-027r1  Aleksandar Balaban 2016-01-18
This OGC Engineering Report (ER) is a deliverable of the OGC Testbed 11. This ER describes the Digital Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) enrichment and validation services in the Testbed 11 Aviation thread, including: • A description of the architecture and architectural options. • An overview of the implemented components and workflows followed by a short description of each component. • Documentation of the issues, lessons learned as well as accomplishments and scenarios that were of general interest in the Aviation thread. More detailed information on other specific aspects considered in OWS-11 Aviation may be found in the individual Aviation Engineering Reports.
OGC® Testbed-11 High Resolution Flood Information Scenario Engineering Report    15-046r2  Eugene G. Yu, Liping Di, Ranjay Shrestha 2016-01-18
This OGC Engineering Report describes the high-resolution flood information scenario carried out under the Urban Climate Resilience Thread of the Testbed 11 Initiative. The scenario was developed for two areas of interest: the San Francisco Bay Area and in Mozambique. The scenarios for these two locations demonstrate the interoperation and capabilities of open geospatial standards in supporting data and processing services. The prototype High Resolution Flood Information System addresses access and control of simulation models and high-resolution data in an open, worldwide, collaborative Web environment. The scenarios were designed to help testbed participants examine the feasibility and capability of using existing OGC geospatial Web Service standards in supporting the on-demand, dynamic serving of flood information from models with forecasting capacity. Change requests to OGC standards have also been identified through the Testbed activity.
OGC® Testbed 11 REST Interface Engineering Report    15-052r1  Frédéric Houbie 2016-01-18
REST architectural principles are associated with optimal functioning of the Web but their manifestation in geospatial Web services standards is not straightforward. This OGC Engineering Report (ER) examines their use both in existing OGC Services standards and in new or revised service standard proposals, some of which were implemented during OGC Testbed 11. The ER then defines possible uniform practices for developing bindings or interaction styles for OGC Web services that appropriately leverage REST principles.
OGC® Testbed-11 Multi-dimensional GeoPackage Supporting Terrain and Routes Engineering Report    15-067  Gobe Hobona;Roger Brackin 2015-11-19
Routing is one of the most widely used functions of mobile applications. Routing often requires consideration of a variety of factors in order to provide reasonable estimations of journey time and the cost of travel. Another widely used function of mobile applications is the visualization of characteristics of terrain such as slope or viewsheds. The goal of this engineering report is to describe the work carried out in the OGC Testbed-11 for multidimensional terrain and routing support on SQLite databases that conform to the OGC GeoPackage standard. This OGC® Engineering Report (ER) describes an approach for the storage of routing and multidimensional terrain data in such databases. The ER also presents the results and lessons learnt from the experimentation conducted by the testbed.
OGC® Testbed-11 DGIWG GMLJP2 testing results Engineering Report    15-073  E. Devys, L.Colaiacomo, P. Baumann 2015-11-18
This OGC Engineering Report (ER) describes work done in OGC Testbed 11 to test GMLJP2 in terms of defining a DGIWG GMLJP2 version 1 profile. The requirements for a DGIWG profile of GMLJP2 have been documented in the DGIWG GMLJP2 version 1 profile. The Imagery WG inside DGIWG has developed a filter to map the files produced using the previous GMLJP2 schema into the GMLJP2 version 2 schema and is about to submit a GMLJP2 2.0 profile to DGIWG. The DGIWG implementation of the GMLJP2 profile is based on the OGC GMLJP2 v2 and other requirements are coming directly from the adoption inside the DGIWG of the new OGC GMLJP2 version 2. This Testbed 11 activity is a response to the need of harmonization between DGIWG and OGC.
OGC® Testbed-11 Incorporating Social Media in Emergency Response Engineering Report    15-057r2  Matthes Rieke, Simon Jirka, Stephane Fellah 2015-11-18
This OGC Engineering Report (ER) was created as a deliverable for the OGC Testbed 11 initiative of the OGC Interoperability Program. This ER describes an approach for incorporating Social Media for Emergency Response applications that use spatial data infrastructures. This document also reports on findings about the advancements using Social Media and VGI resources. The ER includes ideas on improving the architecture, service change recommendations (primarily concerning the OGC Sensor Observation Service (SOS) 2.0 interface), and lessons learned.
OGC® Testbed-11 Symbology Mediation    15-058  Stephane Fellah 2015-11-18
This OGC® Engineering Report (ER) summarizes the approaches, findings and the results of the Symbology Mediation sub-thread activities of the OGC Testbed-11 Cross Community Interoperability (CCI) Thread. The ER: • Provides an overview of existing standards relevant to symbology mediation, • Outlines the approaches adopted during the testbed, • Describes the conceptual models and services developed during the testbed to address semantic mediation and portrayal of feature information related to Emergency Management and to some extent to the Aviation domain.
OGC® Testbed11 Referenceable Grid Harmonization Engineering Report    15-065r1  Eric Hirschorn, Peter Baumann 2015-11-18
This Engineering Report is a deliverable of the Testbed-11 Urban Climate Resilience (UCR) Thread. The UCR Thread responds to the urgent need to make climate information and related data readily available for the public and government decision makers to prepare for changes in the Earth’s climate. An important set of a data sources that will play an important role in detecting changes due to climate effects are a wide array of remote imaging systems.
OGC® Testbed-11 Implementing Linked Data and Semantically Enabling OGC Services Engineering Report    15-054  Stephane Fellah 2015-11-18
This OGC® Engineering Report (ER) summarizes the approaches, findings and the results of the Linked Data and Semantic Enablement of OGC Web Services sub-thread activities of the OGC Testbed-11 Cross Community Interoperability (CCI) Thread. This report provides an overview of existing standards for geosemantics, outlines the approaches adopted during the testbed, describes the conceptual semantic models and services developed during this testbed to leverage Linked Data and semantic enabled OGC web services.
OGC® Testbed-11 Aviation Feature Schema Recommendations Engineering Report    15-026  Thomas Forbes, Alberto Olivares, Richard Rombouts 2015-10-30
Developed by EUROCONTROL, the Aviation Feature Schema (AFX) is a template for application schemas to implement by adding their operational attributes. For example, the Airport Mapping format can be implemented by extending AFX. The AFX defines concepts of geometry and temporality through predefined classes and properties. Therefore, these elements need not be redefined by application schemas. This means implementations of the AFX abide by the same structure, therefore aiding interoperability and allowing the rapid development of schemas. The AFX schema is designed to be generic and easily reusable and it is not intended to replace the standard aviation models such as WXXM and AIXM. This Engineering Report assesses the suitability of the AFX as a template for lowering the GIS entry level for aviation data, providing recommendations of suitability and areas of improvement. The report is aimed at system and client developers that shall use AFX.
OGC® Testbed 11 Use of Semantic Linked Data with RDF for National Map NHD and Gazetteer Data Engineering Report    15-066r1  Gobe Hobona;Roger Brackin 2015-10-01
Over the past few years there has been an increase in the number, size and complexity of databases across government sectors. This has undoubtedly created challenges relating to the discovery and access of information and services on multiple databases across static and deployed networks. Linked Data has been suggested as a method able to tackle those challenges. The aim of the Hydrographic Linked Data activity in the OGC Testbed 11 was to advance the use of Linked Data for hydrographic data by building on the achievements of the previous testbeds and to improve the understanding of how to better build relations between hydro features and non-hydro features (e.g., stream gauge measurement/location vs bridge or other built features upstream or downstream). This aspect of the testbed focused on the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) which is published by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). This OGC Engineering Report provides guidelines on the publication of hydrographic and hydrological data serialized as Resource Description Framework (RDF) using Linked Data principles and technologies based on OGC standards. The document also presents the experimentation conducted by Testbed 11 in order to identify those guidelines.
OGC® Testbed 11 Catalogue Service and Discovery Engineering Report    15-056  Wenwen Li, Sheng Wu 2015-10-01
This OGC Testbed 11 Engineering Report provides a comprehensive review and comparison in terms of architecture, functionality, and usability of the OGC catalogue service standards CSW 2.0.2 and CSW 3.0. We are especially interested in how well the two standards provide support for open searches and federated distributed searches in current distributed computing paradigms. We also evaluated the support of semantic searches using different strategies, including (1) semantic mediation, a.k.a. ontology-based query expansion (Li et al. 2008; Li et al. 2011), (2) semantic association, which enables current catalogue information models to support semantic search (Li et al. 2014; Li et al. 2015), and (3) complete renovation of the CSW information model to be a triple store and utilize Semantic Web technology (Berner-Lee 2001) to support semantic query and data retrieval. Scenarios to search for hydrological data are developed to evaluate the performance of catalogue searching using the above strategies. Recommendations for adoption of CSW standards as well as tasks in advancing catalogue search and data discovery in future testbeds is also discussed.
OGC® Testbed 11 GeoPackaging Engineering Report    15-068r2  Gobe Hobona;Roger Brackin 2015-08-19
Mobile location based service applications and users have an increasing need for access to geospatial data from any place in the world, including locations with limited or intermittent connectivity to communications networks. Maintaining consistency between copies of the same data held by different mobile devices can be a significant challenge when connectivity is limited or intermittent. This OGC Engineering Report describes the work carried out in OGC Testbed-11 in relation to the creation and synchronization of SQLite databases that conform to the OGC GeoPackage standard . This Engineering Report describes an approach for the use of various standards to achieve such synchronization. The document also presents the results and lessons learnt from the experimentation conducted in the Testbed.
OGC® Testbed 11 Aviation - Architecture Engineering Report    15-025r2  Johannes Echterhoff 2015-08-19
This OGC® document describes the architecture implemented in the OGC Testbed 11 Aviation thread.
OGC® Testbed 11 Data Broker Specifications Engineering Report    15-028  Daniel Balog 2015-08-19
This document is a deliverable of the OGC Testbed 11 Interoperability initiative. The report’s contents cover the summary of the interoperability work regarding the Aviation Data Broker concept. This data broker concept enables the setup of cascading OGC Web Feature Server (WFS) servers to form a data source chain, in which one service is capable of providing information coming from one or more other services. The objectives of this document are to research the feasibility of this concept and to investigate a number of specific Data Broker responsibilities and use cases, such as provenance and lineage, conflation, caching, scalability and flexible management of data sources.
OGC® Testbed 11 Aviation - Guidance on Using Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Business Rules (SBVR) Engineering Report    15-024r2  Johannes Echterhoff 2015-08-19
This document is a deliverable of the OGC Testbed 11 . It describes the results of developing a tool to automatically derive Schematron code from SBVR constraints. It also documents a vocabulary with a profile of core geospatial terms and concepts, which can be used to express geospatial constraints in business rules.
OGC® Testbed 11 Engineering Report: Implementing Common Security Across the OGC Suite of Service Standards    15-022  Andreas Matheus 2015-08-19
This OGC Engineering Report (ER) focuses on describing Common Security for all OGC Web Service Standards. This work was performed as part of the OGC Testbed 11 activity.
OGC® Testbed 11 Implementing JSON/GeoJSON in an OGC Standard Engineering Report    15-053r1  Joan Masó 2015-08-19
In the OGC Testbed 11, the Cross-Community Interoperability (CCI) thread had a key objective of building on the work accomplished in the OGC 8, 9 and 10 Testbeds. The goal of the CCI threads is to increase interoperability between communities sharing geospatial data. This thread made advances in semantic mediation approaches for data discovery, access and use of heterogeneous data models and heterogeneous metadata models. This particular Engineering Report (ER) is part of the OGC efforts to advance the OGC Architecture with the adoption of REST interfaces and more encodings such as JSON.
OGC® and Ordnance Survey - UK Interoperability Assessment Plugfest (UKIAP) Engineering Report    14-057  Bart De Lathouwer, Peter Cotroneo, Paul Lacey 2015-03-26
The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), the UK Ordnance Survey, AGI and Dstl conducted a first of a series of events called the United Kingdom Interoperability Assessment Plugfest (UKIAP) 2014. The purpose of UKIAP 2014 is to advance the interoperability of geospatial products and services based on OGC standards within the UK geospatial information (GI) community. The results of the Plugfest will allow Ordnance Survey to provide best practice guidance to those who want to consume or implement geospatial web services or products based on OGC standards. UKIAP 2014 is open to open- and closed source vendors and to all GI organizations in the UK to involve as many participants in the initiative as possible.
USGS OGC® Interoperability Assessment Report    14-079r1  Ingo Simonis 2015-02-02
The USGS Interoperability assessment was conducted under the OGC Interoperability Program with the goal to better understand how USGS customers make use of OGC compliant Web services operated by USGS. For this assessment, USGS customers have been invited to share their experiences and to describe their use cases and experiences made with USGS data services and products. From those descriptions, recommendations have been derived that help USGS to better understand their user community and optimize their service offerings.
OGC® Testbed 10 Summary Engineering Report    14-044  Lew Leinenweber 2015-02-02
The OGC Testbed 10 was an initiative of OGC’s Interoperability Program to collaboratively extend and demonstrate OGC’s baseline for geospatial interoperability. The majority of work for Testbed 10 was conducted between October 2013 and April 2014.
WaterML2.0 part 2 – rating tables, gauging observations and cross-sections: Interoperability Experiment Results    14-114r1  Peter Taylor 2014-12-30
Part 1 of WaterML2.0 covers exchange of hydrological time-series data, the observational processes used to generate them, and information related to the monitoring points (stations/sites) where time-series data are typically collected. WaterML2.0 Part 2, is a candidate standard that defines how to exchange rating tables, gauging observations and cross-sections in an interoperable manner. This engineering report outlines the design and results of an OGC Interoperability Experiment (IE) that implemented and tested the current WaterML2.0 part 2 information model. The OGC IE experiment ran was conducted from November 2013 to August 2014. The use case for the IE involved exchange of data in three scenarios in Australia, US and the UK. This report describes the software requirements, design, deployments and challenges faced by the experiment. The results were used to improve the WaterML2.0 part 2 information model and provided the basis for the formation of an OGC Standards Working Group (SWG) in August 2014. This SWG is responsible for formalization of the candidate OGC standard, for submission in 2015.
OGC® Aircraft Access to SWIM (AAtS) Harmonization Project Summary Report    14-086r1  Josh Lieberman, Johannes Echterhoff, Matt de Ris, George Wilber 2014-11-03
This OGC® document summarizes the Aircraft Access to SWIM (AAtS) Harmonization activity developed by a team funded by the FAA and led by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The activity involved assembling a core team of industry participant experts to analyze and harmonize four standards suites and/or standards-based architectures relevant to air-ground information exchange: • The Aircraft Access to SWIM (AAtS) concept, • RTCA aeronautical information services (AIS) and meteorological (MET) information data link service committee’s (SC-206) concepts and standards, • Air-Ground Information Exchange A830 (AGIE) standard and • OGC standards and architectural perspectives. Elements of this effort have included: • Creation and public release of a Request for Information • Analysis of the fits and overlaps between the four standards suites • Engagement with ongoing standards development efforts to reduce incompatibilities
OGC® Aircraft Access to SWIM (AAtS) Harmonization Architecture Report    14-073r1  George Wilber, Johannes Echterhoff, Matt de Ris, Joshua Lieberman 2014-11-03
This OGC® document describes the Aircraft Access to SWIM (AAtS) harmonization architecture developed by a team funded by the FAA and led by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC).
Testbed 10 Performance of OGC® Services in the Cloud: The WMS, WMTS, and WPS cases    14-028r1  Edric Keighan, Benjamin Pross, Hervé Caumont 2014-10-14
This document characterizes the performance and scalability of OGC data services in the Cloud. Three use cases highlighting different geo-processing aspects of OGC data services have been developed, implemented, and benchmarked. Each use case is presented in a separate section of this document with performance results and discussions.
OGC® Web Services Facade for OGC IP Engineering Report    12-133  John Hudson 2014-08-22
This document describes the Web Services Façade which was developed by LISAsoft as part of the OWS-9 testbed. The document also includes discussions about lessons learned during the development, and suggestions for future development. This Engineering Report documents the Web Services Façade work done within OWS-9 as an extensible, open source tool, which supports translations between different protocols for a specific web service. For the OWS-9 testbed, it has been set up to translate between POST and SOAP services for a Web Feature Service. However, it can be configured to support translations between multiple protocols, such as REST, SOAP, KVP, JSON, as well as supporting multiple web services. The Web Services Façade is an extensible, open source tool, which supports translations between different protocols for a specific web service. For the OWS-9 testbed, it has been set up to translate between POST and SOAP services for a Web Feature Service. However, it can be configured to support translations between multiple protocols, such as REST, SOAP, KVP, JSON, as well as supporting multiple web services.
OGC® Testbed 10 Cross Community Interoperability (CCI) Hydro Model Interoperability Engineering Report    14-048  Genong (Eugene) Yu, Liping Di 2014-07-16
This OGC® document gives guidelines for enabling interoperability among different hydro data models and services. The demonstration specifically gives out best practices for supporting interoperability among the National Hydrographic Network (NHN) of Canada, the National Hydrographic Dataset Plus (NHD+) of United States, and the OGC HY_Features model developed and proposed by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The discussed version of OGC HY_Features was adopted as the mediation bridge model to exchange information among heterogeneous hydrological models.
OGC® Testbed 10 Flight Information Exchange Model GML Schema    14-037  Thomas Forbes, Ballal Joglekar 2014-07-16
This report provides guidance for implementing the Flight Information Exchange Model (FIXM) using the same best practice as the Aeronautical Information Exchange Model (AIXM) and the Weather Information Exchange Model (WXXM) by adopting ISO and OGC standards. The report is aimed at system and client developers that shall use the FIXM data encoding for the exchange of flight information. This document is a deliverable for the OGC Testbed 10 (Testbed-10) testbed activity. OWS testbeds are part of OGC's Interoperability Program, a global, hands-on and collaborative prototyping program designed to rapidly develop, test and deliver proven candidate standards or revisions to existing standards into OGC's Standards Program, where they are formalized for public release. In OGC's Interoperability Initiatives, international teams of technology providers work together to solve specific geoprocessing interoperability problems posed by the Initiative's sponsoring organizations. OGC Interoperability Initiatives include testbeds, pilot projects, interoperability experiments and interoperability support services - all designed to encourage rapid development, testing, validation and adoption of OGC standards. The Testbed-10 sponsors are organizations seeking open standard for their interoperability requirements. After analyzing their requirements, the OGC Interoperability Team recommends to the sponsors that the content of the Testbed-10 initiative be organized around the following threads: • Cross-Community Interoperability (CCI) • Open Mobility • Aviation More information about the Testbed-10 tested can be found at: http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/requests/103
OGC® Testbed 10 Engineering Report: Aviation Dissemination of Weather Data    14-038r1  Mark Hughes 2014-07-16
This OGC document provides an analysis of the mapping between the NOAA Web Gridded Document Service (WGDS) and the OGC Web Coverage Service (WCS) and describes an adapter which translates WCS 2.0 requests to WGDS requests and then translates WGDS responses to WCS 2.0 responses. This Engineering Report was prepared as a deliverable for the OGC Testbed 10 (Testbed-10) initiative, specifically the Testbed 10 Aviation Thread.
OGC® Testbed 10 Virtual Global Gazetteer Engineering Report    14-029r2  Martin Klopfer 2014-07-16
This document provides a technical description of the Virtual Global Gazetteer implemented for OGC Testbed 10. The Virtual Global Gazetteer integrates two gazetteers – a copy of the USGS gazetteer containing domestic names and a copy of the NGA gazetteer containing non-domestic names (hosted by Interactive Instruments) and provides the capability to link to additional local gazetteers and linked data information, allowing a user to retrieve extended information on locations selected from either of the initial gazetteers. The access to linked data information provided by these gazetteers was achieved by GeoSPARQL enabling these gazetteers using semantic mapping components
OGC® Testbed 10 Aviation Human Factor Based Portrayal of Digital NOTAMs ER    14-039  Thibault Dacla, Daniel Balog 2014-07-16
This activity is part of OGC Testbed 10. The aviation thread was focused on developing and demonstrating the use of the Aeronautical Information Exchange Model (AIXM) and the Flight Information Exchange Model (FIXM), building on the work accomplished in prior testbeds to advance the applications of OGC Web Services standards in next generation air traffic management systems to support European and US aviation modernization programs. This document provides the result of the Testbed 10 to assess the compliance between the OGC standards and the guidelines provided by the SAE in their latest published document regarding portraying of NOTAMs. Specifically, the Human Based Portrayal of DNOTAM work attempts to fulfill the high level requirements identified in the OGC Testbed-10 RFQ Annex B . The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the recommendations of the SAE comity and to evaluate the feasibility of their application using OGC standards for portraying, namely the Symbology Encoding standard, version 1.1.
OGC® Testbed 10 Cross Community Interoperability (CCI) Ontology Engineering Report    14-049  Ingo Simonis, Stephane Fellah 2014-07-16
Testbed 10 ontology work focused on: • A general examination of ontologies in the context of OGC data modeling, handling, and organization. Testbed-10 has started to define a consistent set of ontologies implementing solid theoretical foundations and semantics. • The definition of a core ontologies for representing incident information used by Incident Management Systems (IMS) and mapping symbologies used in the emergency and disaster management domain with the goal to improve interoperability between different IMS symbology sets used across multi-level jurisdiction. • Addressed ontology mapping between hydrology feature models using SPARQL and OWL2.
OGC® Testbed 10 Recommendations for Exchange of Terrain Data    14-006r1  Daniel Balog 2014-07-15
This document is a deliverable of the OGC Testbed 10 (Testbed-10). Its contents cover the summary of the work carried out regarding the recommendations for the exchange of terrain data. Suggested additions, changes, and comments on this draft report are welcome and encouraged. Such suggestions may be submitted by email message or by making suggested changes in an edited copy of this document. The changes made in this document version, relative to the previous version, are tracked by Microsoft Word, and can be viewed if desired. If you choose to submit suggested changes by editing this document, please first accept all the current changes, and then make your suggested changes with change tracking on.
OGC® Testbed 10 Report on Aviation Architecture    14-008  Matthes Rieke 2014-07-15
This document is a deliverable of the OGC Testbed 10 (Testbed-10). This document describes the architecture that was implemented in the Testbed-10 Aviation thread. Additionally, it provides descriptions of all software components involved in the Aviation architecture as well as a dedicated chapter focusing on the evaluation and design of FIXM 2.0. Here, a special focus lies on the integration into the data provisioning components, namely the Web Feature and Event Services.
OGC® Testbed-10 CCI VGI Engineering Report    14-016  Arne Bröring;Simon Jirka;Matthes Rieke, Benjamin Pross 2014-07-15
This Engineering Report was created as a deliverable for the OGC Testbed 10 (Testbed- 10) initiative of the OGC Interoperability Program. This report describes an approach for integrating Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) into a spatial data infrastructure and reports on findings about the advancements using VGI resources. It includes optimization ideas, service change recommendations, and lessons learned. This is not a normative document.
OGC® Testbed 10 Report on Aviation Binding AIXM to Development Tools    14-007  Matthes Rieke 2014-07-15
This document is a deliverable of the OGC Testbed 10 (Testbed-10). Its contents cover the summary of the work carried out regarding the creation and evaluation of generated data bindings for the Aeronautical Information Exchange Model (AIXM) for established programming languages. Suggested additions, changes, and comments on this draft report are welcome and encouraged. Such suggestions may be submitted by email message or by making suggested changes in an edited copy of this document.
OGC® Testbed 10 Annotations Engineering Report    14-002  Joan Masó and Raj Singh 2014-07-15
This OGC Engineering Report provides guidelines for dealing with geospatial annotations in OGC standards. It proposes a generic data model and a set of mappings into different popular encodings This OGC® document is applicable to OWS context, GMLJP2 and any other standards that can require annotations.
Testbed 10 Engineering Report: GML for Aviation Conformance Testing    14-000  R. Martell 2014-07-14
This activity is part of OGC Testbed 10. The aviation thread was focused on developing and demonstrating the use of the Aeronautical Information Exchange Model (AIXM) and the Flight Information Exchange Model (FIXM), building on the work accomplished in prior testbeds to advance the applications of OGC Web Services standards in next generation air traffic management systems to support European and US aviation modernization programs This document summarizes technical work relating to the enhancement of the GML 3.2.1 conformance test suite in accord with the requirements in the OWS-10 RFQ, Annex B1, section 6.3.6: “GML for Aviation Compliance Test Suite + GML for Aviation Conformance Testing ER”. The essential aim is to advance compliance with respect to the use of GML geometry representations in aviation (AIXM) data.
OGC® Testbed 10 Provenance Engineering Report    14-001  Joan Masó, Guillem Closa Yolanda Gil and Benjamin Proß 2014-07-14
The provenance activities reported in this document were part of the OGC Testbed 10 Cross Community Interoperability (CCI) thread. This OGC® document gives guidelines for the capture and documentation of provenance information at dataset, feature and attribute level. It only considers vector features (mainly, points and lines) and does not elaborate on the coverage data model (so it does not talk about provenance of raster information). It proposes an approach to use the W3C PROV standard with geospatial information that can come from different sources and are integrated through different processing steps. It also reviews the applicability of ISO19115 and ISO19115-2 lineage.
OGC® Testbed-10 Service Integration Engineering Report    14-013r1  Panagiotis (Peter) A. Vretanos 2014-05-19
This document specifies technical changes to the OGC web service architecture baseline to support better integration among the services. Although integration may be achieve in a number of ways and using a number of other technologies, the goal of this document is to achieve this integration within the current OGC service framework in order to leverage existing investments in OGC web services infrastructure.
OGC® Testbed 10 CCI Profile Interoperability Engineering Report    14-021r2  Gobe Hobona, Roger Brackin 2014-04-28
This Engineering Report was prepared as a deliverable for OGC Testbed 10, an initiative of the OGC Interoperability Program. The document presents the work completed with respect to the Cross Community Interoperability (CCI) thread within the testbed. The work has been commissioned in order to inform geospatial information frameworks of the Defence Geospatial Information Working Group (DGIWG), National System for Geospatial Intelligence (NSG) of the US National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (NGA) and the UK Ministry of Defence (MOD). The Engineering Report presents an analysis and assessment of interoperability between DGIWG, NSG and UK MOD profiles of Web Map Service (WMS) and Web Feature Service (WFS) standards of the OGC. The engineering report also presents findings from the implementation of the reference profiles.
OGC® Testbed 10 OWS Context in NIEM Engineering Report    14-017  Gobe Hobona, Roger Brackin 2014-04-28
This Engineering Report was prepared as a deliverable for OGC Testbed 10, an initiative of the OGC Interoperability Program. The document presents the work completed with respect to the Open Mobility thread within the testbed. The Engineering Report describes and evaluates options for integrating OWS Context documents in requests for information based on the National Information Exchange Model (NIEM).
OGC® Climate Challenge Integration Plugfest 2009 Engineering Report    10-002  Raj Singh 2014-04-28
This OGC Engineering Report (ER) documents findings of the CCIP 2009 Plugfest, which was conducted via the public Internet to address requirements stated in the CCIP Call for Participation . It addresses concept development, specifications tested, and interoperability experiments conducted. The ER concludes with issues that arose, and provides recommendations for the refinement of OGC Specifications and the Plugfest process. Recommendations in this ER will be considered in the planning of future activities. OGC expresses thanks to the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and to CSIRO for sponsoring CCIP 2009.
OGC® Testbed-10 Rules for JSON and GeoJSON Adoption: Focus on OWS-Context    14-009r1  Pedro Gonçalves 2014-04-15
This document identifies the generic rules for obtaining JSON documents directly from existing XML documents and schemas elements. It is primordially targeting the OWS Context JSON Encoding design, but is presented in a generic approach. Such generic approach can offer the guidelines for other OGC services, when defining and using JSON encodings.
OGC® OWS-7 Schema Automation Engineering Report    10-088r3  Clemens Portele 2014-04-15
The capabilities of OGC’s KML 2.2 as a format for exchange and visualization of U.S. National System for Geospatial Intelligence (NSG) Application Schema (NAS) data is explored.
OGC CHISP-1 Summary Engineering Report    13-046r2  Lew Leinenweber 2014-02-24
This report summarizes the results of OGC’s Climatology-Hydrology Information Sharing Pilot, Phase 1 (CHISP-1). The objective of this initiative was to develop an inter-disciplinary, inter-agency and international virtual observatory system for water resources information from observations in the U.S. and Canada, building on current networks and capabilities. The CHISP-1 Initiative was designed to support these Use Case functions: • Hydrologic modeling for historical and current stream flow and groundwater conditions • Modeling and assessment of nutrient load into the Great Lakes
OGC® CHISP-1 Engineering Report    130=-053r1  Panagiotis (Peter) A. Vretanos 2014-02-24
This document provides a technical description of the work completed for the Climatology-Hydrology Information Sharing Pilot, Phase 1 project. This document describes a profile of SOS, the NRCan GIN SOS 2.0 profile, developed in order to define a baseline of interoperability among the sensor observation services used in the project. This document describes the use cases used to drive the component development during the project. The first use case was a flood scenario that involved exchanging cross-border hydrologic data with a unified alert service. The second use case involved calculating nutrient loads to the Great Lakes, which also involved the cross-border exchange of analytic data. This document describes each component developed during the project and the challenges encountered and overcome during the development. The newly developed components include a nutrient load calculation client, a SOS integrating water quality data form the U.S. and Canada, a nutrient load calculation service, an upstream gauge service, a subscription client, and an event notification service composed of a number of sub-components including a subscription broker, an observation harvester and a CAP alert client.
Summary and Recommendations of the Geospatial Enhancement for the National Information Exchange Model (Geo4NIEM) Interoperabi    13-054r1  Richard Martell 2013-11-07
Geospatial information technologies are increasingly a foundation for supporting Information Sharing Environment (ISE), homeland security (HLS), homeland defense (HLD), law enforcement (LE), emergency management (EM) and public safety missions in the US. The inability to transport, deliver and exchange geospatial information for critical geospatial assets increases the risk to the nation. Many ISE HLS/HDS/LE mission partners have developed stand-alone geospatial information systems (GIS) or Common Operating Picture (COP) applications to support their stakeholder communities during incidents and for daily operational support. While different missions, these GIS/COP capabilities rely upon much of the same data or generate specific data during an event. The data are often stove-piped and not exposed to a broader community that could benefit from these data, resulting in duplication and delayed or incorrect decisions. While mission partners do not need to use the same GIS/COP tools, they could benefit from shared access to the common operating data and services used within these systems if they were exposed and exchanged using open standards. Under the auspices of the Program Manager for the Information Sharing Environment (PM-ISE), an identified government-wide information sharing shortfall will be resolved by funding work to enhance the National Information Exchange Model (NIEM). The focus of this work is to further enhance the framework’s geospatial exchange capability in light of guidelines and standards issued by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) so as to significantly improve inter-government information sharing.
OGC® Military Operations Geospatial Interoperability Experiment (MOGIE)    13-080r3  Frank Klucznik, Matthew Weber, Robin Houtmeyers, Roger Brackin 2013-10-25
experiment demonstrated that GML content can be embedded in NIEM conformant XML and be exploited by commercial and open source tools without loss of precision (e.g., right number of bits) or accuracy (e.g., physical location on a map). Embedding GML in NIEM conformant XML was accomplished in MOGIE using the NIEM adapter.
OGC® SWE Implementation Maturity Engineering Report    13-032  George Percivall 2013-09-11
This report summarizes the outcomes of a process to assess the maturity of implementations based on SWE standards. This report covers the following areas: • SWE standards overview • Implementations of SWE in major systems • SWE software implementations and compliance • SWE implementations in IP • Recommendations and Observations A main outcome is the summary assessment of the SWE Implementation Maturity as presented in the Preface based on the body of the report.
OWS-9 WCS Conformance Testing Engineering Report    12-162r1  Jinsongdi Yu, Peter Baumann 2013-06-18
This Engineering Report was prepared as a deliverable for the OGC Web Services, Phase 9 (OWS-9) initiative of the OGC Interoperability Program. The document presents the work completed with respect to the Conformance & Interoperability Testing & Evaluation sub-thread within OWS-9. This Engineering Report describes and evaluates the specification of WCS 2.0 core corrigenda and extensions’ Abstract Test Suite (ATS) and the implementation of ETS for use within an OGC SOA processing chain.
OGC® OWS-9 Architecture - Registry Engineering Report    12-144  David Burggraf 2013-06-18
This OGC® Engineering Report provides guidelines for the harvest, registration and retrieval of aviation resources from an OGC web catalogue/registry service (OGC CSW-ebRIM), with particular emphasis on ISO metadata resources. Alternatives for selective and efficient retrieval of such resources are also described along with lessons learned. The OGC CSW-ebRIM registry interface is evaluated against SESAR registry requirements, documented as a gap analysis, to assess whether there are any obstacles to implementing SESAR registry with an OGC CSW-ebRIM interface.
OGC® OWS-9 Report on Aviation Performance Study    12-158  Matthes Rieke 2013-06-18
This document is a deliverable of the OGC Web Services (OWS) Initiative - Phase 9 (OWS-9). The report summarizes the work carried out regarding performance and endurance testing of data provision services, namely Web Feature Service and Event Service. More specifically, the report deals with the performance and endurance testing of data provision services commonly used within OWS Aviation testbeds. Test runs have been evaluated on the basis of well-defined, service-specific test models and the results are documented in detail. Furthermore, a description of the service test environment is documented in alignment with the overall OWS-9 service architecture
OGC® OWS-9 Web Feature Service Temporality Extension Engineering Report    12-146  Timo Thomas 2013-06-18
This document is a deliverable of the OGC Web Services (OWS) Initiative - Phase 9 (OWS-9). This Engineering Report summarizes the OWS-9 activity regarding the extension of the Web Feature Service (WFS) and Filter Encoding (FE) standards to support dynamic feature data. Specifically this document describes the result work performed in OWS 9 on the WFS Temporality Extension. The technical specification including background is discussed and defined in the OGC Discussion Paper 12-027r1. This document gives a summary about issues, lessons learned, recommendations, accomplishments and benefits for the Aviation Architecture. It also gives an outlook on future work items and change requests.
OGC® OWS-9 Engineering Report - CCI - Single Point of Entry Global Gazetteer    12-104r1  Panagiotis (Peter) A. Vretanos 2013-06-18
This document provides a technical description of the Single Point of Entry Global Gazetteer (SPEGG) implemented for the OWS9 test bed. The SPEGG integrates two gazetteers – a copy of the USGS gazetteers containing domestic names (hosted by CubeWerx Inc.) and the NGA gazetteer containing foreign names (originally hosted at NGA but currently hosted by Intergraph Corp.). Both integrated gazetteers and the SPEGG implement the Web Feature Service (WFS) standard.
OGC® OWS-9 Data Transmission Management    12-163  Thibault Dacla; Eriza Hafid Fazli; Charles Chen; Stuart Wilson 2013-06-18
This OWS-9 Engineering Report documents investigations, findings, lessons learned and proposed future work for the Data Transmission Management unit, invented and prototyped in OWS-9. The purpose of the Data Transmission Management unit is to optimize, customize and make reliable the information exchange between the aircraft and the different web services on the ground.
OGC® OWS-9 CITE Help Guide Engineering Report    12-152r1  Luis Bermudez 2013-06-18
This Engineering Report was created as a deliverable of the CITE Thread as part of the OGC Web Services, Phase 9 (OWS-9) initiative of the OGC Interoperability Program. This OGC® Engineering Report describes how to execute the CITE tests, how to select the conformance classes, how to access and download the TEAM Engine, Test Scripts and Reference Implementations, how to insert your own data and/or schemas along with a section that provides other community help resources. This is not a normative document.
OGC® OWS 9 Data Quality and Web Mapping Engineering Report    12-160r1  Jon Blower, Xiaoyu Yang, Joan Masó and Simon Thum 2013-06-18
This Engineering Report specifies conventions for conveying information about data quality through the OGC Web Map Service Standard (known hereafter as the “WMS-Q conventions”), OGC Web Map Tile Service Standard (known hereafter as the “WMTS-Q conventions”), OGC KML (known hereafter as the “KML-Q conventions”) and OGC Augmented Reality Markup Language.
OGC® OWS-9 Engineering Report - OWS Innovations - Map Tiling Methods Harmonization    12-157  Joan Masó 2013-06-18
This engineering report proposes a profile for WMTS that limits the flexibility or the standard and mimics what some other tile initiatives are doing. It also proposes some improvements in WMTS to accommodate the need for requesting several tiles of a region at different scales that has been identified by the GeoPackage team. These recommendations help to better harmonize OSGeo tile standards and mass-market technologies.
OGC® OWS-9 - OWS Context evaluation IP Engineering Report    12-105  Joan Masó 2013-06-18
This OGC Engineering Report describes the results of the OWS-9 IP on OWS Context 1.0. OWS Context is a draft OGC candidate standard. The OWS Context activity tested and evaluated the relative benefits of different encoding methods prior to finalization of the candidate standard. OWS Context has been proposed with an Atom encoding, a JSON encoding and an HTML5 encoding. The encoding requirement seeks to understand the level of mass-market acceptance of these different encoding options and their ability to support mash-ups. Each encoding should be evaluated, including examples and recommendations to move forward. Recommendations should enable the OWS Context capability for OGC services while remaining cognizant of implementations using mass-market technologies.
OGC® OWS-9 OWS Innovations WCS for LIDAR Engineering Report    12-155  Weiguo Han, Yuanzheng Shao, Liping Di 2013-06-18
This Engineering Report is prepared as a deliverable for the OGC Web Services, Phase 9 (OWS-9) initiatitive of the Innovations Coverages Sub-Thread. This document represents the OWS-9 OWS Innovations WCS for LIDAR Engineering Report. In this report, the implementation of WCS 2.0 service that serves the LIDAR data in NITF format is introduced. This service supports the JPEG 2000 output format along with GMLJP2 metadata description as well as the JPIP protocol to deliver the output JPEG2000 data.
OGC® OWS-9 Innovation - Coverages: Coverage Access (OPeNDAP) Study    12-095  James Gallagher, Peter Baumann 2013-06-18
This document represents the OWS-9 OWS Innovations Coverage Access Study Engineering Report. It contributes knowledge based on the experience prototyping the WCS 2.0 Service – Access Innovations component, established in close collaboration with the OPeNDAP group. To this end, accessing a variety of coverage data types considering WCS 2.0 and DAP 2.0 interfaces have been implemented and demonstrated. The final result is a WCS 2.0 interface for the DAP 2.0 suite.
OWS-9: Summary of the OGC Web Services, Phase 9 (OWS-9) Interoperability Testbed    13-011  Nadine Alameh 2013-04-02
This report summarizes the results of OGC Web Services Initiative, Phase 9 (OWS-9).
OWS-9 Engineering Report - SSI - Bulk Data Transfer (GML Streaming)    12-097  Jeff Harrison 2013-03-26
This document provides a description of the Bulk Data Transfer investigations related to Geography Markup Language (GML) streaming and feature data transportation implemented in the OGC OWS-9 test bed. This document extends the concept of Bulk Data Transfer to the dissemination of large payloads consisting of geospatial data sets and/or collections of data sets between machines that are connected via a network. This document also describes the delivery of large payloads consisting of geospatial data sets and/or collections of data sets to SpatiaLite/SQLite to store the data for use by mobile applications.
OWS-9 Reference Architecture Profile (RAP) Advisor Engineering Report    12-156  George Percivall 2013-02-19
The Reference Architecture Profiler (RAP) Advisor™ is a web based application that recommends OGC Standards and OGC Reference Model (ORM) Sections that are relevant to a system development; such that a community of interest could derive and build a profile of suitable OGC standards to meet their specific needs. This Engineering Report contains the requirements, conceptual design, development methodology, and implementation of the RAP Advisor. Initial development of the RAP Advisor™ was concurrent with the OGC Web Services Testbed, Phase 9 (OWS-9) with NGA sponsorship. During OWS-9 timeframe, key concepts of the RAP Advisor were confirmed through prototyping. Future development is required to complete the functions and content of the Advisor.
OWS-9 Aviation Architecture Engineering Report    12-147  Claude Speed 2013-02-06
This OGC® document describes the architecture implemented in the OWS-9 Aviation thread, including: • A description of the architecture used for the implementation of the OWS-9 Aviation Use Cases. • An overview of the implemented components and workflows followed by a short description of each component. • A discussion about discovery and registry methods and practices. • Documentation of the issues, lessons learned as well as accomplishments and scenarios that were of general interest in the Aviation thread. More detailed information on specific aspects considered in OWS-9 Aviation may be found in the individual Aviation Engineering Reports.
OWS-9 Aviation Portrayal Engineering Report    12-151  Daniel Balog, Roger Brackin, Robin Houtmeyers 2013-02-06
This document provides an overview of the portrayal work within the OWS-9 Aviation thread. Using open standards, a web services architecture was designed and prototyped to enable the retrieval of static airport maps in support of an ePIB. An ePIB, or Digitally Enhanced Pre-Flight Information Bulletin, provides the pilot with an easy-to-interpret representation of any relevant aeronautical and meteorological events that are likely to affect the flight, expressed as Digital NOTAMs. The static airport maps are an important part of an ePIB and should provide a graphical representation of the status of departure and arrival airports, showing only NOTAMs relevant to the particular context and represented geographically so that the effect of the NOTAM is clear. This approach avoids the pilot scanning through pages of textual description for potentially relevant NOTAMs, reducing the workload and the risk of missing a critical piece of information.
OWS-9 Security Engineering Report    12-118  Andreas Matheus 2013-02-06
This Engineering Report describes the approaches to security taken in the OWS-9 initiative. This document presents the results of the work within the OWS-9 Security and Services Interoperability (SSI) thread and results from CCI and Innovations Cross Thread activities. The report also describes the various tasks and their results regarding interoperability between different security components provided by different participants.
OWS-9: SSI Security Rules Service Engineering Report    12-139  Jan Herrmann, Andreas Matheus 2013-02-05
In this engineering report we describe how to administrate XACML v2.0, XACML v3.0 and GeoXACML v1.0.1 access control policies through a “Security Rules Service”. Following the XACML and ISO terminology this service plays the role of a Policy Administration Point (PAP) and is therefore called XACML Policy Administration Point (XACML PAP) or XACML Policy Administration Web Service (XACML PAWS). After introducing OWS-9’s Common Rule Encoding and motivating all components required to administrate (Geo)XACML policies, we describe the interface of a powerful XACML PAP on a conceptual level. This interface definition could serve as a baseline for a future OASIS or OGC XACML Policy Administration Web Service (e.g. OGC XACML PAWS) specification.
OWS-9 CCI Semantic Mediation Engineering Report    12-103r3  Gobe Hobona, Roger Brackin 2013-02-05
The OWS-9 Cross Community Interoperability (CCI) thread built on progress made in the recent OWS-8 initiative by improving interoperability between communities sharing geospatial data through advances in semantic mediation approaches for data discovery, access and use of heterogeneous data models and heterogeneous metadata models. This OGC engineering report aims to present findings from CCI thread activities towards advancement of semantic mediation involving heterogeneous data models, gazetteers and aviation data available through web services conformant to OGC standards. This Engineering Report was prepared as a deliverable for the OGC Web Services, Phase 9 (OWS-9) initiative of the OGC Interoperability Program. The document presents the work completed with respect to the Cross Community Interoperability thread within OWS-9.
OWS-9: UML-to-GML-Application-Schema (UGAS) Conversion Engineering Report    12-093  Clemens Portele 2013-02-05
The main scope of the schema automation activities in the OWS-9 initiative was twofold: • Support for the SWE Common 2.0 XML Schema encoding rule • Development of and support for an encoding rule for JSON instance data In both cases the scope includes implementation of the encoding rules in ShapeChange. In addition, an initial analysis of the possibilities for generating SWE Common 2.0 record descriptions from schemas in UML has been conducted and the results are described in this document. The approach and results to both work items are described and discussed in this engineering report. This Engineering Report has been prepared as part of the OGC Web Services Phase 9 (OWS-9) initiative.
OWS-9 OWS Innovations GMLJP2 for National Imagery Transmission Format (NITF) Engineering Report    12-154  Darko Androsevic 2013-02-05
This OGC® document provides mapping of the national imagery transmission format (NITF) version 2.1 format and NITF tagged record extensions (TRE) to GMLJP2 v2.0 (draft) format. This Engineering Report was prepared as a deliverable for the OGC Web Services, Phase 9 (OWS-9) initiative. This document further describes study results of analyses of NITF and NITF extensions (TRE) capabilities and how they can be supported by GMLJP2 2.0 (draft). This activity was a part of the OGC OWS-9 Innovations thread.
OWS-9 CCI Conflation with Provenance Engineering Report    12-159  Matthes Rieke, Benjamin Pross 2013-02-05
This OGC® Engineering Report describes the architecture of a WPS capable of conflating two datasets while capturing provenance information about the process. The report also provides information about defining and encoding conflation rules and about encoding provenance information. This Engineering Report was created as a deliverable for the OGC Web Services, Phase 9 (OWS-9) initiative of the OGC Interoperability Program.
OWS-9 Aviation: AIRM Derivation    12-094  Debbie Wilson, Clemens Portele 2013-02-05
This report describes the architecture, rules and tools developed within the OWS-9 Aviation Thread AIRM Derivation task. These rules and tools were demonstrated by transforming the AIRM Meteorology package into a Weather Exchange Model (WXXM) and GML/JSON implementation schema.
OWS-9: Engineering Report: Use of SWE Common and SensorML for GPS Messaging    12-096  Mike Botts 2013-02-01
This document is an Engineering Report for the OWS-9 Interoperability Test Bed. The focus of the document is discussion and demonstration on the use of SWE Common Data 2.0 encodings to support an interoperable messaging description and encoding for the next generation GPS message streams into and out of the GPS navigation accuracy improvement services. The connection of SWE Common to SensorML 2.0 and the application of SensorML to describe the processing surrounding GPS navigation improvement will also be discussed.
OWS-9: OGC Mobile Apps: Definition, Requirements, and Information Architecture    12-119r1  Ingo Simonis 2013-02-01
This engineering report represents the results of the OWS-9 innovations thread on mobile applications. Initially, the goal was to help understanding the requirements for developing standards-based geospatially-enabled mobile applications. The report describes how OGC Enabled Mobile Apps can be integrated into information architectures based on OGC standards. Particular emphasize has been put on the future work section, as it provides valuable recommendations for further standardization work (and, equally important, highlights aspects that could be excluded from standardization)
OGC® Surface Water Interoperability Experiment FINAL REPORT    12-018r2  Peter Fitch 2012-08-27
This report describes the methods, results, issues and recommendations generated by the Surface Water Interoperability Experiment (SW IE), carried out as an activity of the OGC Hydrology Domain Working Group (HDWG). The SW IE was designed to advance the development of WaterML 2.0 and test its use with various OGC service standards (SOS, WFS, WMS and CSW). A secondary aim was to contribute to the development of a hydrology domain feature model and vocabularies, which are essential for interoperability in the hydrology domain, although these are not the main focus for the IE.
OGC 3D Portrayal Interoperability Experiment FINAL REPORT    12-075  Arne Schilling, Benjamin Hagedorn, Volker Coors 2012-08-22
This document describes the results of an OGC Interoperability Experiment (IE) on the portrayal of 3D geospatial information. It contains technical details on processing 3D information in an OGC service environment as well as best practices on how to portray large data sets in urban planning scenarios, taking into account architectures and capabilities of interactive 3D graphics. Especially Web 3D Service and Web View Service, two draft standards (published as OGC discussions paper), have been in the focus of 3DPIE.
OWS-8 Analysis of OGC Standards for Supporting Mobile Object Processing Implementation (Engineering Report)    11-108  Ingo Simonis 2012-05-15
This document describes the usability of OGC services and encodings to implement the OWS-8 observation fusion and tracking thread in an abstract way. The real deployment and an actual perspective on the engineering and technology viewpoint can be found in OWS-8 engineering report OGC 11-134, ‘OWS-8 Tracking: Moving Target Indicator Process, Workflows and Implementation Results’. In addition, it describes an XMLSchema based implementation of the UML information models defined in OWS-8 engineering report “Information Model for Moving Target Indicators and Moving Object Bookmarks” (OGC 11-113). The report is also based on the results of the VMTI/GMTI and STANAG 4676 realization in the OGC concept of operations study; performed as part of OWS 8 and the EC cofunded research project Emergency Support System - ESS” (contract number 217951).
Surface Water Interoperability Experiment FINAL REPORT    12-018r1  Peter Fitch 2012-05-15
This report describes the methods, results, issues and recommendations generated by the Surfacewater Interoperability Experiment (SW IE), carried out as an activity of the OGC Hydrology Domain Working Group (HDWG). The SW IE was designed to advance the development of WaterML 2.0 and test its use with various OGC service standards (SOS, WFS, WMS and CSW). A secondary aim was to contribute to the development of a hydrology domain feature model and vocabularies, which are essential for interoperability in the hydrology domain, although these are not the main focus for the IE.
OWS-8 Tracking: Moving Target Indicator Process, Workflows and Implementation Results ER    11-134  Rob Cass, Mark Simms 2012-05-15
The scope of this report is to provide a description of services, data storage and data movement within the OWS-8 Tracking sub-thread. The paper outlines the development of Sensor Observation Services (SOS), a Web Feature Service(WFS), a Notification Service and a Web Processing Service (WPS) for generating track features. Additionally, implemented encodings will be discussed as examples and in comparison to the encodings detailed in (Simonis, 2011).
OGC® Engineering Report for the OWS Shibboleth Interoperability Experiment    11-019r2  Chris Higgins 2012-04-06
This document reports on outcomes from the OGC Web Services Shibboleth Interoperability Experiment (OSI). The main objective of OSI was to advance the use of Shibboleth (an open source implementation of SAML) as a means of protecting OWS. In the process, OSI helped develop further understanding of this approach to establishing trusted federations of OWS. This report documents these findings and is intended to be of use to those interested in how Shibboleth/SAML access management federations may function as an organisational model for operational Spatial Data Infrastructure.
OWS-8 Report on Digital NOTAM Event Specification    11-092r2  Johannes Echterhoff, Matthes Rieke 2012-04-04
This document is a deliverable of the OGC Web Services (OWS) Initiative - Phase 8 (OWS-8). It describes the results of the conceptual and schematron rule based validation of the Digital NOTAM Event Specification (DNES). Various conceptual aspects were identified which need clarification and/or revision. Schematron rules were developed for a number of the DNES scenarios. This document contains coverage tables which document normative statements from the DNES and indicate which of them can be tested with existing schematron rules. See: <a href="http://dp.schemas.opengis.net/11-092r2">http://dp.schemas.opengis.net/11...
OWS-8 AIXM Metadata Guidelines Engineering Report    11-061r1  David Burggraf 2012-02-09
This OGC® Engineering Report provides guidelines for ISO metadata usage in AIXM 5.1 conformant to the requirements of OGC 10-195 (Requirements for Aviation Metadata) and the recommendations of OGC 10-196r1 (Guidance on the Aviation Metadata Profile), with the exception of non-ISO metadata elements listed in these documents.
OWS-8 Aviation: Guidance for Retrieving AIXM 5.1 data via an OGC WFS 2.0    11-073r2  Debbie Wilson, Ian Painter 2012-02-09
The scope of this guidelines report is to provide: 1. Overview of the OGC WFS 2.0 standard 2. Recommendations for a minimum set of operations and behaviours that should be supported to ensure consistency across software implementations. 3. Guidance for configuring the WFS 2.0 to retrieve AIXM 5.1 data 4. Summary of potential improvements to WFS/FE 2.0, GML and AIXM 5.1 specifications to better support aeronautical use cases
OWS-8 Review of the WXXS exchange schemas    11-091  Richard Martell 2012-02-09
This aim of this review is to assess the the WXXS 1.1.1 exchange schemas for compliance with ISO 19136:2007 (GML 3.2.1). This international standard stipulates rules and recommendations regarding the construction of GML application schemas; these constraints are documented in the following clauses: (a) Clause 7.1: GML model and syntax (b) Clause 21: Rules for GML application schemas (c) Annex A.1: Abstract test suite for GML application schemas
OWS-8 Aviation Thread - Authoritative AIXM Data Source Engineering Report    11-086r1  Jan Herrmann, Andreas Matheus 2012-01-25
This engineering report describes how to provide access control for WFS-T 2.0 instances in the OWS-8 Authoritative AIXM Data Source scenario.
OWS-8 Aviation - WXXM Engineering Report    11-072r2  Wenny Rahayu, Torab Torabi, Andrew Taylor-Harris, Florian Puersch 2012-01-25
This OGC™ document specifies the advancement of WXXM and Weather Concepts in the OWS-8 Aviation Thread. The focus is on investigating and demonstrating the applicability and suitability of WXXM in producing accurate, real-time aircraft weather radar data using OGC™ Web Coverage Services (WCS) to be used by meteorological applications and services supporting aviation. Such applications provide information which enhances safe and efficient tactical and
OWS-8 Aviation Architecture Engineering Report    11-093r2  Johannes Echterhoff 2011-12-19
This OGC® document describes the architecture implemented in the OWS-8 Aviation thread, including general workflows. The document contains a summary description of the various components within the architecture. An introduction to the Access Control System is provided. Furthermore, the document describes relevant aspects of handling events and notifications. Lessons learned – for example regarding the AIXM Temporality Model – as well as scenarios and accomplishments are documented as well.
OWS-8 AIXM 5.1 Compression Benchmarking    11-097  Jérôme JANSOU, Thibault DACLA 2011-12-19
AIXM stands today for the de-facto standard for Aeronautical Information Publication, used by air control service providers from Europe, USA and Australia. With version 5.1, it reaches a level of maturity allowing the support of Digital NOTAMs, as the first official version of these messages was published this year. In a near future, AIXM will be carried inside WFS requests but also into notification messages along WS event services. This last channel will be the one dedicated to D-NOTAMs. As D-NOTAM is aimed at aircrafts pilots, their transmission to the aircraft will use air/ground data link. Today, datalink communications lack bandwidth and future datalink will still have a limited capacity.
OWS-8 Digital NOTAM Refactor    11-106r1  Rob Atkinson, James Groffen 2011-12-19
AIXM is a GML Application Schema described in UML using the relevant ISO / OGC standards from the 19100 series. The Digital NOTAM Events Specification (DNES) is an extension of AIXM that can describe notices to airmen using the AIXM standard. This document has been produced in conjunction with the Domain Modelling Cookbook - a practical guide to domain modelling following a series of best practices developed by the CSIRO and other OGC members. Where possible, documentation of the refactor effort for Digital NOTAM to be compatible with these practices is incorporated into the domain modelling cookbook.
Summary of the OGC Web Services, Phase 8 (OWS-8) Interoperability Testbed    11-139r2  David Arctur 2011-12-19
The OGC Web Services, Phase 8 (OWS-8) Testbed was an initiative of OGC’s Interoperability Program to collaboratively extend and demonstrate OGC’s baseline for geospatial interoperability. The majority of work for OWS-8 was conducted from March to September 2011.
OWS-8 Geoprocessing for Earth Observations Engineering Report    11-116  Peter Baumann 2011-12-19
Ad-hoc processing of Earth Observation (EO) data available through online resources is gaining more and more attention. Expected benefits include - More versatile EO data access - More convenient EO data access - Consequently, broadened use and exploitation of EO data - An important step towards integration of EO data into automatic chaining and orchestration - More efficient EO data access: indicating the exact desired result and evaluating processing code close to the coverage data source (i.e., on the server) minimizes network traffic, one of today’s critical performance limiting factors.
OWS-8 WCS 2.0 Earth Observation Application Profile Compliance Tests Engineering Report    11-095r1  Stephan Meissl, Peter Baumann 2011-12-19
This Engineering Report describes and evaluates the specification of EO-WCS ATS and the implementation of ETS for use within an OGC SOA processing chain.
OWS-8 Information Model for Moving Target Indicators and Moving Object Bookmarks (Engineering Report)    11-113r1  Ingo Simonis 2011-11-23
This report aims at providing an information model for the usage of video moving target indicator data (VMTI), ground moving target indicator (GMTI) and tracking information (STANAG 4676) in the context of standardized spatial data infrastructures compliant to OGC and ISO standards. If possible, precedence was given on using the OGC Sensor Web Enablement suite of standards, as this suite provides a homogeneous suite of standards to express sensor and sensor observation data in the context of OGC. This means that all encodings are based on Observation and Measurements version 2 (O&M) and implemented as an application schema according to the rules of Geography Markup Language version 3.2 (GML). An information model – so called ‘bookmark’ – to conserve the trace from a moving object back to the original base data is discussed briefly.
OWS-8 CCI Schema Automation Engineering Report    11-064r3  Clemens Portele, Reinhard Erstling 2011-11-23
This OGC® document specifies improvements to the processing of information represented in or referenced from an application schema in UML to create derived, implementation level resources, in particular: • XML Schema documents to represent types and their properties • Schematron schema documents to represent constraints • XSLT-Stylesheets to create KML instances of features The documented improvements have been specified, implemented in the ShapeChange tool and tested in the context of schemas developed as part of the NGA's Topographic Data Store (TDS) schemas. The work is a continuation of the work documented in OGC® document 10-088r2, the OWS-7 Schema Automation Engineering Report.
OGC SAA Pilot Study Engineering Report    11-055  Steve Miller 2011-11-23
This OGC® document describes the architecture used for the implementation of the SAA Dissemination Pilot Study demonstrations. This includes an overview of the implemented components and workflows, and discussions of lessons learned.
OWS-8 WCS 2.0 Earth Observation Application Profile Engineering Report    11-096  Stephan Meissl, Peter Baumann 2011-11-23
This Engineering Report describes progress on EO-WCS in the course of OWS-8.
OWS-8 Engineering Report - Guidelines for International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) portrayal using SLD/SE    11-089r1  Daniel Tagesson 2011-11-23
This OGC® document gives guidelines to portrayal of AIXM according to ICAO aviation symbology using SLD/SE.
OWS-8 Cross Community Interoperability (CCI) Semantic Mediation Engineering Report    11-063r6  Gobe Hobona, Roger Brackin 2011-11-23
The OWS-8 Cross Community Interoperability (CCI) thread built on progress made in the recent OWS-7 initiative to cover key technology areas that could not be addressed within the scope of that initiative. The OWS-8 CCI thread aimed to increase interoperability within communities sharing geospatial data, including advancing of interoperability among heterogeneous data models, advancing strategies to share styles to provide a more common and automated use of symbology, improvement of KML, and advancing schema automation allowing communities to better share their information artefacts. This OGC engineering report aims to present findings from CCI thread activities towards advancement of semantic mediation involving data retrieved from heterogeneous data models that are available through web services conformant to OGC standards. The engineering report will briefly introduce relevant details of the semantic web and mediation. The document will make recommendations on establishing a semantic mediation architecture that uses OGC web services and emerging practice from the semantic web community. Based on the scenario adopted by the CCI thread, the document will also discuss the pros and cons of adopting relevant standards. The engineering report will offer recommendations on how specific OGC standards may be adopted or modified in order to support semantic mediation.
OWS-8 CCI Portrayal Registries Engineering Report    11-062r2  David Burggraf, Ron Lake 2011-11-17
The OWS-8 Cross Community Interoperability (CCI) thread was built on progress made in the recent OWS-7 initiative to cover key technology areas that could not be addressed within the scope of that initiative. The OWS-8 CCI thread aimed to increase interoperability within communities sharing geospatial data, including advancing of interoperability among heterogeneous data models, advancing strategies to share styles to provide a more common and automated use of symbology, improvement of KML, and advancing schema automation allowing communities to better share their information artifacts. This OGC engineering report aims to present findings from the portrayal registries as part of the CCI subthread
OWS-8 Bulk Geodata Transfer with File Geodatabase    11-114  David Danko, Lance Shipman, Paul Ramsey 2011-11-16
This document provides an overview of the File Geodatabase API and documents the testing performed in the OWS 8 Testbed.
OWS-8 Bulk Geodata Transfer Using GML Engineering Report    11-085r1  Panagiotis (Peter) A. Vretanos 2011-11-07
This document describes the work done during the OWS-8 test bed investigating methods and apparatus for distributing individual geospatial data sets and/or collections of data sets in a consistent manner between machines that may or may not be connected via a network. The investigation focuses on the initialization of a target WFS, from a source WFS, for the purpose of GeoSynchronization. Data, schema, metadata and/or topology are exported from a source WFS, transferred to a target WFS (either electronically or physically via some media) and then imported into the target WFS. From that point on, the two WFS's are maintained in synchrony using a Geosynchronization Service (see OGC 10-069r2).
OGC® Engineering Report: Water Information Services Concept Development Study    11-013r6  Luis Bermudez, David Arctur 2011-07-14
The purpose of this report is to recommend appropriate architectures and procedures for migrating the CUAHSI HIS to the OGC-based WaterML 2.0 encoding (profile of OGC O&M standard) and OGC web services such as Sensor Observation Service (SOS), Web Feature Service (WFS), Web Mapping Service (WMS), Web Coverage Service (WCS), and Catalogue Service for the Web (CSW). This report may be used as the basis for future OGC Interoperability Program initiatives.
OGC® Groundwater Interoperability Experiment FINAL REPORT  1.0.0  10-194r3  Boyan Brodaric, Nate Booth 2011-03-22
This report describes the methods, results, issues and recommendations generated by the Groundwater Interoperability Experiment (GWIE). As an activity of the OGC Hydrology Domain Working Group (HDWG), the GWIE is designed to: (1) test the use of WaterML2 with the SOS interface, and Groundwater ML (GWML) with the WFS interface, (2) test compatibility with software clients, and (3) facilitate sharing of massive volumes of sensor-based water level observations and related water well features across the Canada and United States border.
Ocean Science Interoperability Experiment Phase II Report    09-156r2  Luis Bermudez 2011-01-04
This OGC Engineering Report documents the work performed by the participants of the Ocean Science Interoperability Experiment Phase II. This work is a follow-on to the OGC Oceans IE Phase 1 activity. Specifically, this IE addressed the following tasks: • Automated metadata/software installation via PUCK protocol. • Offering of complex systems (e.g. observations systems containing other systems) such as collection of stations. • Linking data from SOS to out-of-band offerings. • Semantic Registry and Services. • Catalogue Service-Web Registry. • IEEE-1451/OGC-SWE harmonization As a result of this experiment, a number of recommendations and conclusions were identified.
Ocean Science Interoperability Experiment Phase 1 Report    08-124r1  Luis Bermudez 2011-01-03
This OGC Engineering report details lessons learned and best practices defined as part of the Phase 1 Ocean Science Interoperability Experiment (Oceans IE). The Oceans IE was performed to investigate the use of OGC Web Feature Services (WFS) and OGC Sensor Observation Services (SOS) for representing and exchanging point data records from fixed in-situ marine platforms. The activity concluded that for the Oceans community use of in-situ sensors that the OGC Sensor Observation Services (SOS) was better suited than the use of OGC Web Feature Services (WFS) for this purpose.
Authentication IE Enginerring Report    10-192  Jeff Harrison 2011-01-03
Results of the Auth IE are presented in this Engineering Report document and serve as guidance to both implementers and organizations deploying solutions that involve basic authentication. It is the belief of the Auth IE participants that if such a document is made available to the community more OGC implementing products will natively support authentication.
OGC Fusion Standards Study, Phase 2 Engineering Report    10-184  George Percivall 2010-12-13
This Engineering Report summarizes two phases of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC®) Fusion Standards study and of the fusion prototypes developed during the OWS-7 Testbed which occurred between the two study phases. Recommendations from the first phase of the study were implemented in OWS-7. Based upon the results of OWS-7, responses to two Requests for Information and a multi-day workshop, this report provides a cumulative set of recommendations for advancing fusion based on open standards.
OWS-7: Summary of the OGC Web Services, Phase 7 (OWS-7) Interoperability Testbed    10-094  David Arctur 2010-10-22
The OGC Web Services, Phase 7 (OWS-7) Testbed was an initiative of OGC’s Interoperability Program to collaboratively extend and demonstrate OGC’s baseline for geospatial interoperability.
OWS-7 Aviation Architecture Engineering Report    10-079r3  Thomas Everding 2010-09-09
The document describes the architecture that was implemented in the Aviation thread of OWS-7. The document provides an overview of the architecture and describes the implemented components. In addition it discusses “eventing” and notification techniques relevant for the aviation domain.
OWS-7 Information Sharing Engineering Report    10-035r2  David Rosinger, Stan Tillman 2010-09-08
This Engineering Report describes an investigation and evaluation of various methods of sharing information within a collaborative environment accomplished during the OGC Web Services Testbed, Phase 7 (OWS-7). The intent of the OWS-7 Information Sharing activity was to move toward a standardized method of sharing geospatial data between Integrated Clients and potentially catalogs. This report reviews past OGC work within this area, makes recommendations based on the best parts of previous collaboration techniques, and provides recommendations for encoding documents for use in information sharing.
OWS-7 Aviation - FUSE Deployment Engineering Report    10-130  Debbie Wilson 2010-08-18
This document describes the integration results of deploying OGC Web Services on the FAA chosen Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) - FUSE. Snowflake Software were commissioned to evaluate the impacts of the FAA SWIM security requirements for both secure messaging and user authentication and gain an understanding of the requirements for deploying OGC web services into the Apache FUSE Enterprise Service Bus (ESB).
OWS-7 Aviation - WXXM Assessment Engineering Report    10-132  Bruno Simmenauer 2010-08-18
The document describes the results of using OGC Web Services for accessing and using WXXM data, notably within aviation scenarios involving rerouting procedures motivated by the sudden closure of airspace areas caused by the eruption of a volcano. The focus of this document will be to evaluate the ability to encode and serve associated operational data with WXXM 1.1.1.
OWS-7 Aviation - AIXM Assessment Report    10-131r1  Debbie Wilson 2010-08-18
This report shall focus on evaluating the ability to: - Serve, filter and update AIXM 5.1 data via the OGC WFS-T 2.0 interface - Recommend guidelines or cross-walks for interpreting the new AIXM 5.1 schedules in conjunction with the Timeslice model in a web services environment
OWS-7 - Towards secure interconnection of OGC Web Services with SWIM    10-155  Andreas Matheus 2010-08-18
This Engineering Report provides guidance and generate action items for the OGC standardization effort to properly enable security in the near future such that a seamless, interoperable but secure interconnection between OGC Web Services and FUSE ESB technology stack as selected by use in the System Wide Information Management (SWIM) System of the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) can be achieved.
OWS-7 - Authoritative Data Source Directory Engineering Report    10-086r1  Andrew Turner 2010-08-18
This document presents the Authoritative Data Source Directory (ADSD) engineering suggestions and results of the OGC OWS-7 ADSD thread. This group focused on creating a workflow for geospatially referencing, finding, and federating data sources with associated authority and relevance.
OWS-7 Engineering Report - Aviation Portrayal    10-127r1  Roger Brackin 2010-08-18
This document describes the requirements, design, technical implementation and technology trialed for the Feature Portrayal service chain used in OWS-7. This includes the interfaces to the OWS Data Services deployed, the feature portrayal servers, the interfaces to clients and the registry information model and interface.
OWS-7 Web Processing Service Profiling Engineering Report    10-059r2  Christian Kiehle, Theodor Foerster 2010-08-18
The overall scope of this OWS-7 Engineering Report is to clarify how to write and register a WPS profile. WPS profiles enable clients to search and identify equivalent WPS-based processes distributed on the web. Therefore, this ER provides guidelines for designing WPS Profiles based on WPS interface specification 1.0.0.
OWS-7 Motion Imagery Discovery and Retrieval Engineering Report    10-087  Wenli Yang, Liping Di 2010-08-18
This Motion Imagery Discovery and Retrieval Engineering Report (ER) documents the metadata used to tag geolocation of Motion Imagery (MI) for discovery, retrieval and linkage with other data sources over the same location, especially the metadata information required to geometrically co-register multiple motion images at pixel level so that data recorded at different times (e.g., different days) and/or by different providers for common or overlapped FOVs can be compared and pixel level changes among the different images can be accurately detected and delineated. This ER reflects one of the achievements during the OWS 7 Sensor Fusion Enablement (SFE) thread, which builds on the OGC Sensor Web Enablement framework that has achieved a degree of maturity through previous OWS interoperability initiatives and deployments worldwide.
OWS-7 Feature and Statistical Analysis Engineering Report    10-074  Theodor Foerster, Bastian Schäffer 2010-08-18
This Engineering Report (ER) is a deliverable for the OGC Web Service 7 testbed. The focus of this ER is using the OGC Web Processing Service (WPS) interface standard for Feature and Statistical Analysis (FSA). Specifically, the ER documents how to enhance interoperability of FSA processes that are hosted as WPS processes on the Web. This ER is coordinated with the Feature and Decision Fusion (FDF) WPS Profiling ER.
OWS-7 Motion Video Change Detection    10-036r2  Stan Tillman 2010-08-18
This Engineering Report documents the development effort to build a Web Processing Service (WPS) to perform a change detection algorithm on two motion video streams. It will examine the WPS Motion Video Change Detection architecture from various viewpoints in order to describe its purpose, data models, functional decomposition, and interaction between distinct computational components.
OWS-7 Engineering Report - Geosynchronization service    10-069r2  Panagiotis (Peter) A. Vretanos 2010-08-02
This candidate standard describes a service that allows data collectors to propose changes to be made to a data provider's features. A change proposal can be made to create new data or to modify/delete existing data. Proposed changes are reviewed (either manually or automatically) an are either accepted or rejected. Accepted changes are applied to the feature(s). The service also maintains a log of all changes applied to each feature that can be used for replication.
OWS-7 Event Architecture Engineering Report    10-060r1  Johannes Echterhoff 2010-08-02
This document is applicable to use cases in which event-driven architecture principles are applied in Spatial Data Infrastructures. The document specifies publish/subscribe functionality for OGC web services. This is done by first defining an abstract publish / subscribe model and then deriving functional requirements from this model.
OGC® NSG Plugweek Engineering Report    09-140r2  Paul Daisey 2010-07-30
The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC®) conducted a series of tests that examined the interoperability, suitability and performance of National System for Geospatial- Intelligence (NSG) Profiles provided by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of four OGC Standards, Web Map Service (WMS), Web Feature Service (WFS), Web Coverage Service (WCS), and Catalog Service (CAT). In the study, vendors, users, and other interested parties conducted Technology Integration Experiments (TIEs) and mutually refined clients, services, interfaces and protocols in the context of a hands-on engineering experience expected to shape the future NGA, NSG and Geospatial Intelligence (GEOINT) web based distribution.
OWS-7 CCSI-SWE Best Practices Engineering Report    10-073r1  Scott Fairgrieve 2010-06-30
This document seeks to define the Best Practices for integrating Common Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) Sensor Interface (CCSI) compliant and potentially other CBRN-based sensors into an OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE)-based environment. The document focuses on the practical application of SWE services and encodings for describing and interacting with CCSI sensors and data and draws heavily from and expands upon work performed in the OGC Web Services Phase 6 (OWS-6) testbed to define methodologies for integrating CCSI sensors into a SWE-based environment both now, by building upon the OWS-6 work, and in the future, by defining CCSI profiles of the SWE specifications.
OWS-7 Dynamic Sensor Notification Engineering Report    10-061r1  Johannes Echterhoff, Ingo Simonis 2010-06-30
This document is applicable to scenarios where moving sensors need to be tracked and their entry into an area of interest needs to be detected. The document presents a detailed discussion of different approaches for encoding tracked object position. Two approaches for implementing dynamic sensor tracking and notification are described, one based on the Sensor Alert Service specification and the other based on the Sensor Event Service specification. An overview of standards and specifications relevant for and related to dynamic sensor tracking and notification is provided.
Fusion Standards Study Engineering Report  0.3.0  09-138  George Percivall 2010-03-21
This OGC Engineering Report (ER) provides discussions and recommendations for information fusion, with a focus on geospatial information. In this ER, fusion is discussed in three categories: sensor fusion, object/feature fusion, and decision fusion. Recommendations in this ER will be considered in the planning of future activities including the OWS-7 Testbed.
End to End Discovery and Access Engineering Report GEO Architecture Implementation Pilot, Phase 2  1.0  09-182r1  Josh Lieberman 2010-02-16
This Architecture Implementation Pilot, Phase 2 Engineering Report (AIP-2 ER) describes the practice of deploying, documenting, and registering contributed resources from the point of view of classes of GEOSS users who rely on GEOSS to support discovery and access to those resources. It emphasizes two paradigms for the GEOSS Common Infrastructure: 1) Service-oriented infrastructure for development of service-based community applications by technically advanced users; and 2) Content-oriented search facility and Web-based access mechanisms for end-users with a range of technical skills and domain knowledge. "End-to-end" here refers to the bidirectional connection between desired discovery practices and goals on the user end; and the required resource interfaces and documentation on the provider end.
AIP-2 Use Cases GEOSS Architecture Implementation Pilot, Phase 2 Engineering Report  0.4.0  09-129  Nadine Alameh 2010-02-16
This AIP-2 Engineering Report (ER) describes a set of transverse technology Use Cases developed and applied in the GEOSS Architecture Implementation Pilot Phase 2 (AIP-2). Such Use Cases define reusable activities within a service-oriented architecture, tailored for the GEOSS environment. This report contains the general Use Cases that were specialized by community Working Groups to implement several specific Societal Benefit Area (SBA) Scenarios in AIP-2. The SBA Scenarios and specialized use cases are defined in separate AIP-2 ERs. This AIP-2 ER will be offered for consideration by the GEOSS Best Practice Registry editors and to OGC Technical Committee for consideration as a Best Practice.
OWS-6 Security Engineering Report  0.3.0  09-035  Rüdiger Gartmann, Lewis Leinenweber 2009-10-09
This Engineering Report describes work accomplished during the OGC Web Services Testbed, Phase 6 (OWS 6) to investigate and implement security measures for OGC web services. This work was undertaken to address requirements stated in the OWS-6 RFQ/CFP originating from a number of sponsors, from OGC staff, and from OGC members.
OWS-6 Geoprocessing Workflow Architecture Engineering Report  0.3.0  09-053r5  Bastian Schäffer 2009-10-09
This document covers Geoprocessing Workflow best practices and methods in a SOA environment. A RESTful approach was also conducted in this testbed, but no specific implementation details were available to be included in this ER; also, the RESTful workflow approaches and technology used in this testbed was essentially same as that used in OWS-5.
OWS-6 Common CBRN Sensor Interface (CCSI)-Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) Engineering Report  0.3.0  09-007  Scott Fairgrieve 2009-10-09
This document outlines the concepts, best practices, and lessons learned gathered from integrating Common Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) Sensor Interface (CCSI) standard-compliant sensors into an OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE)-based architecture. The document also specifies a web service interface for interacting with CCSI sensors and defines the basis for a profile that can be used to represent CCSI sensor definitions, data, and commands in SWE formats.
OWS-6 Outdoor and Indoor 3D Routing Services Engineering Report  0.3.0  09-067r2  Akiko Sato, Nobuhiro Ishimaru, Guo Tao, Masaaki Tanizaki 2009-10-09
This document described the Outdoor and Indoor 3D Routing and Services which are used in the OGC OWS-6 Decision Support Systems (DSS) thread. The objective is to enhance a network topology for the current CityGML specification based on the knowledge acquired through the development and experimental evaluation of this project.
OWS-6 Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) Engineering Report  0.3.0  09-064r2  Ingo Simonis 2009-09-11
This OGC® document summarizes work completed in the OWS-6 Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) thread.
OWS-6 Styled Layer Descriptor (SLD) Changes ER  0.3.0  09-015  Craig Bruce 2009-09-11
This OGC® document reports the results achieved in the Decision Support Services (DSS) subtask of the OWS-6 testbed initiative as it relates to the extension of the OGC Styled Layer Descriptor (SLD) symbology format for improved capability and harmonization with ISO 19117 symbology, International Hydrographic Organization S-52 symbology, USGS Topomap symbology, and Homeland Security Emergency Management symbology.
OWS-6 GeoProcessing Workflow Thread Summary ER  0.3.0  09-063  Lewis Leinenweber 2009-09-11
This OGC® document summarizes work completed in the GeoProcessing Workflow thread of the OWS-6 Testbed, it is applicable to the OGC Interoperability Program testbed.
OWS-6 Symbology Encoding (SE) Changes ER  0.3.0  09-016  Craig Bruce 2009-09-11
This OGC® document reports the results achieved in the Decision Support Services (DSS) subtask of the OWS-6 testbed initiative as it relates to the extension of the OGC Symbology Encoding (SE) symbology format for improved capability and harmonization with ISO 19117 symbology, International Hydrographic Organization S-52 symbology, USGS Topomap symbology, and Homeland Security Emergency Management symbology.
OWS-6 Symbology-Encoding Harmonization ER  0.3.0  09-012  Craig Bruce 2009-08-17
This OGC® document reports the results achieved in the Decision Support Services (DSS) subtask of the OWS-6 testbed initiative as it relates to the harmonization of OGC Styled Layer Descriptor (SLD) and Symbology Encoding (SE) symbology formats with ISO 19117 symbology format, International Hydrographic Organization S-52 symbology, USGS Topomap symbology, and Homeland Security Emergency Management symbology.
OWS-6 GML Profile Validation Tool ER  0.3.0  09-038r1  Clemens Portele 2009-08-14
This document outlines an approach for validating data accessed from a Web Feature Service. Two types of validation are supported: • XML Schema validation against the GML application schema • Validation of additional constraints encoded in Schematron This report describes the validation tool, the types of constraints that have been tested and documents the results.
OWS-6 DSS Engineering Report - SOAP/XML and REST in WMTS  0.3.0  09-006  Keith Pomakis 2009-08-05
This OGC® document reports the results achieved in the Decision Support Services (DSS) subtask of the OWS-6 testbed initiative as it relates to the development of SOAP/XML and REST interfaces for the Web Map Tiling Service (WMTS).
OWS-6 SWE PulseNet™ Engineering Report  0.3.0  09-073  James Ressler 2009-08-05
This document summarizes work delivered on the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) thread of OWS-6. In particular, Northrop Grumman’s contribution from PulseNet™ to the Common Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) Sensor Interface (CCSI) standard-compliant sensors into an OGC SWE-based architecture.
OWS-6 3D Flythrough (W3DS) Engineering Report  0.3.0  09-075r1  Arne Schilling 2009-08-05
This document describes the 3D portrayal server components which were used in the OGC OWS-6 Decision Support Systems (DSS) thread. The objective pf this activity was to efficiently stream and display GML 3 content in internet or wireless networks with limited bandwidth, especially focusing on the CityGML application profile. The server for delivering landscape and city models is implemented as Web 3D Service (W3DS) that is designed as portrayal service.
OWS-6 CITE TEAM Engine Engineering Report  0.3.0  09-072  James Ressler 2009-08-05
This document summarizes the work done on the TEAM compliance test engine and DGIWG Profile compliance test by Northrop Grumman for the CITE thread of OWS-6 in 2008-2009.
OWS-6 SensorML Profile for Discovery Engineering Report  0.3.0  09-033  Simon Jirka, Arne Bröring 2009-07-29
This document defines a basic SensorML profile for discovery purposes. Besides a minimum set of metadata also the structure of according SensorML documents is defined in order to ensure a consistent metadata description. This goal is achieved by a set of Schematron rules that can be used to validate if a given SensorML document complies with the profile described in this engineering report.
OWS-6 Georeferencable Imagery Engineering Report  0.3.0  09-034  Genong (Eugene) Yu, Liping Di 2009-07-29
This document discusses considerations about and recommendations for approaches for georeferenceable imagery under the Sensor Web Enablement thread during OGC Web Services Phase 6. This is an extension to the work described in the previous engineering report number OGC 08-071 . Georeferencealbe imagery is “a referenceable grid that has information that can be used to transform grid coordinates to external coordinates, but the transformation shall not be required to be an affine transformation”. Geolocation of georeferenceable imagery refers to the techniques described in ISO 19130, such as sensor models, functional fit models, and spatial registration using control points.
OWS-6 Secure Sensor Web Engineering Report  0.3.0  08-176r1  Andreas Matheus 2009-07-29
The main purpose of this Engineering Report is to introduce standards-based security solutions for making the existing OGC Sensor Web Services, as described in the OWS-6 SWE baseline, ready towards the handling of sensors in the intelligence domain.
OWS-6 SWE Event Architecture Engineering Report  0.3.0  09-032  Thomas Everding, Johannes Echterhoff 2009-07-29
The document describes an abstract event architecture for service oriented architectures. Furthermore various techniques for implementing an event architecture and working with events are discussed.
OGC OWS-6-AIM Engineering Report  0.3.0  09-050r1  Hans Schoebach 2009-07-27
This report establishes a baseline for the technical architecture, its alternatives and issues for implementing the use cases as specified in the OWS-6 AIM thread RFQ including the temporal WFS supporting the temporal FE 2.0 operators, the Event Service Notification architecture and the client EFBs.
OWS-6 GeoXACML Engineering Report  0.3.0  09-036r2  Jan Herrmann, Andreas Matheus 2009-07-24
The aim of this OGC Engineering Report is to show how to provide access control for OGC Web Services (OWS). In the first part of this document we will briefly introduce the relevant details of XACML 2.0, OGC GeoXACML 1.0 and some related profiles.
OWS-6 WPS Grid Processing Profile Engineering Report  0.3.0  09-041r3  Bastian Baranski 2009-07-24
This OGC Engineering Report describes and reviews the Grid Computing related activity completed during the OGC OWS-6 Interoperability testbed. The document describes the WPS processes deployed in the different demonstration scenarios and offers recommendations to the OGC community as to how to better harmonize the standards work of the OGC with Grid Computing platforms and related concepts and technologies.
OWS-6 UTDS-CityGML Implementation Profile  0.3.0  09-037r1  Clemens Portele 2009-07-20
This OGC document specifies a CityGML-based application schema for a subset of an Urban Topographic Data Store (UTDS) as specified by the US National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA). The particular focus of this implementation profile was to test the applicability of CityGML to UTDS data. This document specifies the implementation profile as well as the findings.
OWS-6 SWE Information Model Engineering Report  0.3.0  09-031r1  Thomas Everding 2009-07-16
This OGC® document is an OGC Engineering Report for the “Harmonization of SWE Information Models” activity within the OWS-6 SWE thread. The document discusses relations between OGC standards SensorML, SWE Common and GML and investigates solutions for increased synergy between these standards. This activity also created UML models of the data types used in SWE and GML. This report shows how UncertML can be integrated into different SWE encodings, namely SWE Common and Observations and Measurements. This report further discusses the integration of MathML and EML into the SWE environment with an emphasis on SensorML processes and processing. This document does not discuss the SWE information model related aspects of catalog entries for sensor services and discovery. This topic is covered in a separate Engineering Report.